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Flashcards in Innate Immunity Deck (46):
1

Cell that's very important in protecting against early innate viral infections

Natural Killer Cells
Kills DNA viruses: Herpes, Paploma viruses

2

Adaptive APC

B cells

3

Innate APC

Macrophages
Dendritic cells ** most important

4

MBL

mannose binding lectin
Soluable PAMP that binds carbs on pathogen surface

5

Examples of soluble PAMPS

CRP: C reactive protein
SP-A & D: surfactant protein
Natural IgM
C1q

6

F-MLP-R

formyl met-leu-phe receptor
Membrane bound PAMP that recognizes sequence of protein synthesis made by bacteria

7

NLR

NOD like receptors
Cytosolic PAMP that recognizes bacterial products, especially in GI tract
NOD1: recognize gram - bacteria
NOD2: recognize gram + and - bacteria

8

RIG like receptors

Cytosolic PAMP that sense viral RNA

9

TLRs that recognize bacterial lipopeptides

Extracellular membrane TLR
TLR1:TLR2
TLR2: TLR6

10

TLR that recognizes LPS

Extracellular membrane TLR
TLR4

11

TLR that recognizes bacterial flagellin on rod shaped bacteria

TLR5

12

TLR that recognizes dsRNA

Inward facing on endosomal membrane TLRs
TLR3

13

TLRa that recognize ssRNA

Inward facing on endosomal membrane TLRs
TLR 7
TLR 8

14

TLR that recognizes CpG DNA

Inward facing on endosomal membrane TLRs
TLR 9

15

TLR signaling pathway for all TLRs except TLR 3

MyD88 --> NK-kB --> acute inflammation, stimulate adaptive immunity
MyD88 --> IRFs --> antiviral state

16

TLR signaling pathway for TLR3

TRIF --> IRFs and AP-1 --> antiviral state
TRIF --> NK-kB --> acute inflammation, stimulate adaptive immunity

17

MyD88

myeloid differentiation protein 88
Adaptor protein in TLR signaling pathway

18

TRIF

TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon beta
Adaptor protein in TLR signaling pathway

19

NF-kB

Transcription factor
Nuclear factor kappa beta
acute inflammation, stimulate adaptive immunity

20

IRF

interferon response factor
Transcription factor
Expression of type 1 interferon --> antiviral state

21

Interferon Type 1 (IFN alpha, IFN beta)

Alpha, beta --> anti viral defense
Important for non-immune cells
Viruses initiate disease by infection of epithelial cells

22

Interferon Type 2 (IFN gamma)

Gamma --> activate macrophages, DC, NK cells --> kill intra-cellular pathogens
Inhibit viral replication
Increases MHC class 1 expression

23

Interleukins (IL1 ...IL -n)

Innate inflammation
Adaptive T helper cell mediation

24

Chemokines (CXCL, CR ...etc)

Recruit immune cells to site of inflammation
Influence homing of lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid tissues

25

List the pro-inflammatory cytokines

TNF-alpha
IL-1
IL-6
IL-8 (CXCL 8)

26

List the cytokines that mediate T helper cell response

IL-2
IL-4
IL-5
IFN gamma

27

Major cytokines responsible for local inflammation and systemic protective effects

IL-1
IL-6
TNF
Increased permeability, fever, change in protein production pattern, increased leukocyte production

28

Loose adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium to site of infection

E selectin on endothelial cells
S lex on immune cell

29

Tight adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium to site of infection

Integrins on immune cell binds to ICAMs (Intracellular adhesion molecules) on endothelial cell
--> CXCL8 expressed on endothelial cells binds receptors on immune cell

30

C3 convertases

C4b2a: Lectin and classical pathway
C3bBb: Alternative pathway

31

Factor I

Inactivate C3 and C4 --> down regulate C3 convertase

32

Factor H

Plasma mediator
Accelerates convertase decay
Cofactor for factor I

33

C4BP

Plasma mediator
Accelerates convertase decay
Cofactor for factor I

34

MCP

membrane mediator
cofactor to factor I
Does NOT accelerate convertase decay

35

DAF

Membrane mediator: decay accelerating factor
Accelerates convertase decay
NO co-factor activity -> convertase could reform

36

CR1

Membrane mediator
Cofactor to factor I
Accelerates convertase decay

37

C5 convertases

C3bBbC3b
C4bC2aC3b

38

CD59

Inhibitor molecule on host cell to keep MAC from forming pores on HOST cell

39

CR1
Ligand: ______
Major cell types that express CR1: ______
Biologic activity: ______

Ligand: C3b, C4b
Cell types: Phagocytes/APC, RBC
Activity: Opsonophagocytosis, immune complex disposal

40

CR2
Ligand: ______
Major cell types that express CR2: ______
Biologic activity: ______

Ligand: C3dg
Cell types: B cells
Activity: antibody response

41

CR3
Ligand: ______
Major cell types that express CR3: ______
Biologic activity: ______

Ligand: iC3b
Cell types: Phagocytes/APC
Activity: Opsonophagocytosis

42

C5aR
Ligand: ______
Major cell types that express C5aR: ______
Biologic activity: ______

Ligand: C5a
Cell types: Phagocytes
Activity: Chemotaxis, anaphylatoxic activity (histamine release, vascular dilation, phagocyte activation)

43

____ (phagocyte) require activation by ______

Macrophage
IFNgamma, TNFalpha

44

2 encapsulated bacteria that need anti-capsular antibody and complement to get phagocytosized

S. pneumonia
N. menigitidis

45

____ immunity activates acute inflammation.
Caused by _____.
Makes ___.
Cytokines that are involved: _____
Ex of bacteria: ______

Innate
Extracellular bacteria
Pus
TNF alpha, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 (CXCL 8)
Staphylococcus aureus

46

____ immunity activates chronic inflammation.
Caused by _____.
Makes ____.
Cytokines that are involved: _____
Ex of bacteria: ______

Adaptive
Intracellular organisms
Granuloma
IFN gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5
Mycobacterium tuberculosis