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Flashcards in Basal Forebrain Deck (32):
0

Ventral striatopallidal system is involved in:

appetitive motor behavior that have positive incentive value

1

Basal magnocellular corticopetal system is involved in:
Consists of:

Controlling attention, cortical arousal and consolidation of memory

Cholinergic and GABA-containing neurons that innervate cortex, amygdala and hippocampus

2

The ventral striatum includes: (4)

Nucleus accumbens
Olfactory tubercle
Ventral putamen
Ventral head of caudate

3

Ventral striatum contain:

GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons

4

Ventral pallidum is an extension of ___
Located:

Globus pallidus external segment (GPe)

Below anterior commissure

5

Internal nucleus accumbens receives excitatory inputs from:

(Glutamate): prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus
(Orexin): hypothalamus

6

Internal nucleus accumbens output to:

GABAergic medium-spiny neurons in ventral striatum

7

Mesostriatal system

Ventral tegmental area (VTA) providing dopamine to ventral striatum

8

Mesocortical system

Ventral tegmental area (VTA) provide dopamine to limbic cortices, amygdala and hippocampus

9

Mesocorticolimbic system =
Runs through:

mesostriatal system + mesocortical system

Medial forebrain bundle to reach basal forebrain and cortex

10

Ventral striatum (NAc) send axons to: (2)

Ventral pallidum
SN pars reticulata

11

Ventral pallidum and SNr send projections to:

mediodorsal thalamic nucleus

12

How is the ventral and dorsal striatum united?

Frontal cortex --> MD thalamus --> premotor cortex --> striosomes in caudate and putamen

United via thalamus

13

Lateral habenula
Inputs:
Outputs:

Ventral pallidum, lateral hypothalamus

SNc, VTA --> inhibit dopaminergic neurons

14

Lateral habenula respond to:

negative stimuli and non reward, disappointment

15

Increased activity in accumbens leads to ____ as seen in ____

Hyperfrontality
Depression

16

Excessive DA may lead to ____ seen in ____

Hypofrontality
Schizophrenia

17

All addictive substances act on ____

VTA
Ventral striatum

18

Most acetylcholine used in CNS is produced in ____

Brainstem nuclei
Basal forebrain

19

Brainstem nuclei contain ____ neurons. Located in ____. Involved in ____.

Mesopontine cholinergic neurons
Midbrain and rostral pontine tegmentum
Forced attention and consciousness

20

Basal magnocellular corticopetal system consists of:

Population of large, cholinergic and GABAergic neurons scattered throughout basal forebrain surrounding ventral globus pallidus

21

3 populations of cholinergic neurons:

Medial septum/vertical diagonal band
Horizontal diagonal band
Nucleus basalis of Meynert

22

ACh or GABA neurons?
Only innervate certain cortical layers

GABAergic

23

ACh or GABA neurons?
Targeted by ventral striatum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, locus ceruleus

ACh

24

ACh or GABA neurons?
Only contact inhibiory cortical neurons

GABA

25

ACh or GABA neurons?
Main targets of axons from cortex

GABA

26

ACh or GABA neurons?
Essential for establishing certain types of memory (spatial, declarative)

ACh

27

Functions of basal magnocellular corticopetal system

1. Cortical arousal
2. Selective attention
3. Modulating cortical plasticity
4. Release of acetylcholine in cortex

28

Decreased cortical ACh associated with ____
Seen in ____

impairment of sustained attention and selective attention
Alzheimer's disease

29

Increased release of ACh in cortex causes ____
Seen in ____

Hypervigilance
Schizophrenia

30

Tyrosine derivative molecules (3)

Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
Dopamine

31

Catecholamines (3)

Dopamine
Norepi
Epi