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Flashcards in Microorganisms Deck (59):
1

E. Coli

Rod shaped, Gram -

2

Fusiform

tapered ends

3

Filamentous

thread-like

4

Staphylococcus aureus
Coagulase __
Mode of infection

Spherical, Gram +, coagulase positive, invade and produce exotoxins

5

Streptococcus pyogenes
Mode of infection

Spherical, Gram +, invade and produce exotoxins

6

Streptococcus pneumonia

Spherical, Gram +

7

Neisseria menigitidis

Spherical, encapsulated Gram -, diplococcus
Use glucose and maltose but NOT sucrose

8

Mycobacteria

Acid fast staining

9

Legionella

Silver gram negative

10

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Intracellular bacterial pathogen, form granulomas, NOT inflammation

11

Gram + cell wall made of ____

polymer of N acetyl glucosamine and N acetyl muramic acid
Techoid acid
Lipotechoic acid
NO outer membrane

12

Have (has) hyaluronic acid capsule

Group A streptococci

13

Have (has) poly D-glutamic acid capsule

Bacillus anthracis

14

Have (has) O-acetylated peptidoglycan

Streptococcus pneumonia meningitis
Mostly streptococci
Neisseria

15

Peritrichous flagella

flagella surrounding bacteria

16

Polar flagella

flagella on ends

17

Vacomycin

acts on cell wall

18

Clindamycin

inhibit oxotoxin production, effect 30S ribosome

19

Rifampin

inhibit transcription factor --> great mucosal penetration ability

20

Have (has) spores

Bacillus (aerobic) and Clostridium (anaerobic)

21

Gram - made of _____

Inner membrane
Periplasm: zone b/c plasma membrane and outer membrane
Outer membrane: phospholipid layer --> lipopolysaccharide layer

22

Structure of lipopolysaccharide

(n) O side chain sugars - core polysaccharide - lipid A

23

Gram - shock

LPS --> fever, hypotension

24

Gram + shock

LTA-peptidoglycan --> fever, hypotension

25

LTA-Peptidoglycan interact with ___ and cause ____

TLR-2/6 and TLR 1/2 on APC
IL-1 beta IL-6 fever and TNF-alpha hypotension

26

LPS interact with ___ and cause ___

TLR-4
IL-1 beta IL-6 fever and TNF-alpha hypotension

27

Superantigen cause _____ and lead to _____

Cross-link interaction b/w TCR and MHC II
greater signal response than TLRs --> Leads to:
IL-1 beta IL-6 fever
TNF-alpha hypotension
INFy + IL2 rash
TNF-beta hypotension

28

Obligate aerobes

Must have O2 to grow
Uses superoxide dismutase and catalase

29

Facultative anaerobes

May grow in O2 or not (fermentative)
Uses superoxide dismutase and catalase

30

2 examples of obligate aerobes

Bacillus, Mycobacterium

31

2 examples of facultative anaerobes

Staphylococcus, Escherichia

32

Aerotolerant anaerobes

may grow with or without O2
ONLY ferments
Has superoxide dismutase but NO catalase

33

Example of aerotolerant anaerobe

Streptococcus

34

Obligate anaerobes

Can only gown without O2
Ferment
Don't have either superoxide dismutase or catalase

35

Example of obligate anaerobe

Clostridium

36

Microaerophiles

Prefer reduced amounts of O2 even though they are aerobes

37

2 examples of microaerophiles

Neisseria, Borrelia

38

Quinolone antibiotics (examples)

Target DNA gyrase --> prevent formation of phosphodiester bonds
Cipro, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin

39

Metronidazole

Intercalates into DNA and prevents replication
Works on anaerobic bacteria
Originally used to treat Trichomonas vaginalis

40

Erythromycin

30S ribosome protein synthesis inhibitor

41

Aminoglycosides

Gentamycin
Broad spectrum. Kill gram negative. Toxic to humans too.
Affect 50S ribosome

42

Tetracycline

Broad spectrum. Impairment of bone development in children. Stained teeth

43

Mupirocin

Topical. Treat impetigo caused by streptococci and staphylococci. Inhibit isoleucine tRNA

44

Viral RNA interacts with ___ and causes ____

TLR 3,7,8,9
Inflammation

45

Example of enveloped virus

Influenza virus

46

Example of naked virus

Polio virus

47

Prions

infectious proteins that deposit in brain tissue

48

Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease and Bovine spongiform encephalopathy caused by ____

deposition of prions

49

Influenza virus belongs to what family?

Orthomyxoviridae

50

APOBEC3G

RNA editing enzyme that slows down replication
Innate defense against viral infection

51

Thucydides Syndrome

Post-influenza staphlococcal TSS

52

Fungi infections activate ______

almost ALWAYS adaptive immunity
TH1 cells --> activate macrophages --> kill fungi

53

Dimorphic

mold at room temp, yeast at body temp

54

Candidiasis

Opportunistic yeast infection --> antibody and Th1

55

Cryptococcus

Opportunistic yeast infection --> antibody and Th1
Cause millions of cases of meningitis in AIDS pts

56

Parasites cause ____

hypersensitivity reaction
No immunity

57

Nematodes

round worms

58

Cestodes

Tape worms

59

Trematodes

Flukes