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Flashcards in Hypothalamus Deck (49):
0

Medial zone nuclei of hypothalamus (6)

Posterior
Dorsomedial
Paraventricular
Preoptic
Ventromedial
Arcuate
Suprachiasmatic

1

Lateral zone nuclei (2)

Tuberomammillary nucleus
Lateral mammillary nucleus

2

Preoptic nucleus

Integrates sensory info needed to judge deviation from set points
Thermoregulation, salt water intake, sleep

3

Paraventricular nucleus

Directly interfacing w/ endocrine and autonomic systems
Has glucose-sensitive neurons

4

Supraoptic nuclei

Release vasopressin --> maintain salt and water balance
Has osmosensitive neurons

5

Generate circadian rhythms for hormone release --> body temp, sexual behavior, cycles of activity

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

6

Sexually dimorphic nuclei
Location:
Contains:

Anterior hypothalamus, posterior to preoptic nucleus
Thermosensitive neurons
Involved in sexual orientation

7

Key player in feeding behavior
Appetite and consumption

Arcuate nucleus

8

Regulates satiety

Ventromedial nucleus

9

Regulates complex integrative control of growth, feeding, maturation, reproduction

Dorsomedial nucleus

10

All histaminergic axons in CNS originate from ____

Tuberomamillary nucleus of posterior hypothalamus

11

Histamine has important role in ____

maintenance of wakefulness, sleep, circadian rhythms

12

5 major bundles of white matter in hypothalamus

Fornix
Mammillothalamic tract
Mammillotegmental tract
Medial forebrain bundle
Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract

13

Fornix connects ____ to ____

Mammillary bodies
Hippocampal formation

14

Mammillothalamic tract connects ____ with ___

Mammillary bodies
Anterior thalamus

15

Mammillotegmental traact connects ____ with ____

Mammillary bodies
Dorsal midbrain

16

Degeneration of fornix and mamillary bodies seen in:

Chronic alcoholism
Amnesia and confusion (Korsakoff's syndrome)

17

Medial forebrain bundle runs through _____
Connects ____ to ____ (4)

Lateral hypothalamus
Hypothalamus to brainstem (below), basal forebrain, amygdala, cortex (above)

18

Monoaminergic superhighway connecting brainstem to cortex and uses monoaminergic neurotransmitters

Medial forebrain bundle

19

Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract runs from ____ to ____ via ____

Paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nuclei
Posterior pituitary
Pituitary stalk

20

Tuberoinfundibular tract runs from ___ to ___
Dopamine released here regulates ___

Arcuate nucleus
Median eminence
Secretion of prolactin from anterior pituitary gland

21

Bitemporal hemianopsia

Tunnel vision
1st reported clinical sign of hypothalamic and pituitary tumor

22

Crossed optic nerve fibers in optic chiasm serve the ____

external (temporal) visual fields

23

Main site where hormones, peptides and other signaling molecules cross blood brain barrier to reach hypothalamus

Median eminence

24

Sensitive to CSF angiotensin II

Subfornical organ (SFO)

25

Sensitive to serum osmolality

Vascular organ of the lamina terminalis (VOLT)

26

Main hypothalamic nuclei that are connected directly with autonomic areas (4)

Paraventricular
Arcuate
Ventromedial
Lateral hypothalamus

27

Major outputs of hypothalamus (3)

Anterior pituitary
Posterior pituitary
Pre-ganglionic autonomic efferent neurons

28

Releasing hormones are produced by _____ located in ____ (2)

Paravocellular/small neurosecretory cells
Paraventricular nucleus and scattered groups in medial and ventral hypothalamus

29

Magnocellular neurons are located in the ____ nuclei (2)
Synthesize:

Paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei
Vasopressin --> water balance
Oxytocin --> milk release/uterine contraction

30

Damage to pituitary stalk will sever _____
Result in ____

Hypothalmo-hypophyseal tract
Loss of vasopressin --> production of large volumes of weak urine by kidneys

31

Hypothalamic output to parasympathetic pre-ganglionics in _____

Midbrain: Edinger-Westphal n.
Pons/medulla: salivatory nuclei, nucleus ambiguus, dorsal vagal nucleus and sacral cord (S2-4)

32

Hypothalamic output to sympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons in ___

Spinal cord T1-L2
Adrenal medulla (T5-T11) --> control Epi and Norepi release

33

Tract composed of diffuse brainstem pathway located in PAG and descending hypothalamic axons and ascending visceral sensory axons

Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus

34

Hypothalamospinal pathway passes through ___
Influence ____

Midbrain and pontine tegmentum
Lateral medulla in central tegmental tract

Blood pressure, sweating, vasoconstriction, release of epinephrine and norepinephrine

35

Thermogenesis:
Lesion of anterior hypothalamus leads to ____

hyperthermia b/c loss of inhibitory control over thermogenesis

36

Thermogenesis:
Lesion of posterior hypothalamus lead to ____

Hypothermia
Body temperature matching ambient temperature

37

Febrile response mediated by _____

Neurons in medial preoptic area (MPOA) that are sensitive to circulating pyrogens

38

Sleep:
Lesions of the anterior hypothalamus produce ____

insomnia

39

Sleep:
Lesions to the posterior hypothalamus leads to ____

Profound state of sleepiness

40

Central norepinephrine (increase/decrease) feeding

Increase

41

Seratonin (increase/decrease) feeding

Decrease

42

Lesions to ventromedial nucleus result in ____

uncontrollable eating

43

Feeding:
Lesions to lateral hypothalamus result in ____

completely abolishing eating (aphagia) and drinking (adipsia)

44

Feeding:
Lesions of medial hypothalamus (ventral part) result in ____

uncontrollable eating and drinking

45

Salt/water intake:
Lesion to anterior hypothalamus will result ____

total loss of desire to drink

46

Major source of descending control of blood pressure regulation

Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) ---> directly modulate baroreflx

47

Hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis

Control onset of reproductive milestones and reproductive cycles

48

____ is important for onset of puberty

Body mass (leptin)