Flashcards in BIO 330 Deck (379)

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31

## Normal distribution, 1SD

### ~2/3 of the area under the curve (2SD = 95%)

32

## random trial

### process/experiment with ≥2 possible outcomes who occurrence can not be predicted

33

## sample space

### all possible outcomes

34

## event

### any subset of the sample space (≥1 outcome)

35

## mutually exclusive events

### P[A and B] = 0

36

## mutually exclusive addition rule

### P[7U11] = P[7} + P[11]

37

## general addition rule

### P[AUB] = P[A] + P[B] - P[A and B]

38

## multiplication rule

###
independent events

P[A and B] = P[A] x P[B]

39

## conditional probability

### P[A I B] = P[A and B] / P[B]

40

## collection of individual easily available to researcher

### sample of convenience

41

## random sample

### ever unit has equal opportunity, selection of unit independent, minimizes bias, possible to measure sampling error

42

## problem with sample of convenience

### assume unbiased/independent- no guarantee

43

## volunteer bias

### health conscious, low income, ill, more time, angry, less prudish

44

## frequency distribution

### describes # of times each value of a variable occurs in sample

45

## probability distribution

### distribution of variable in whole population

46

## absolute frequency

### # of times value is observed

47

## relative frequency

### proportion of individuals which have that value

48

## experimental studies can

###
determine cause and effect

*cause

49

## observational studies can

###
only point to cause

*correlations

50

## quantifying precision

### smaller range of values (spread)

51

## determining accuracy

### usually can't- don't know true value

52

## nominal categorical data with 2 choices

### binomial

53

## why aim for numerical data

### it can be converted to categorical if need be

54

## species richness

### discrete (count)

55

## rates

### continuous

56

## large sample

###
less effected by chance

lower sampling error

lower bias

57

## rounding

### round to one decimal place more than measurement (in calculations)

58

## higher CV

### more variability

59

## proportions

### p^ = # of observations in category of interest/ total # of observations in all categories

60