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Flashcards in BIO 330 Deck (379)
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31

Normal distribution, 1SD

~2/3 of the area under the curve (2SD = 95%)

32

random trial

process/experiment with ≥2 possible outcomes who occurrence can not be predicted

33

sample space

all possible outcomes

34

event

any subset of the sample space (≥1 outcome)

35

mutually exclusive events

P[A and B] = 0

36

mutually exclusive addition rule

P[7U11] = P[7} + P[11]

37

general addition rule

P[AUB] = P[A] + P[B] - P[A and B]

38

multiplication rule

independent events
P[A and B] = P[A] x P[B]

39

conditional probability

P[A I B] = P[A and B] / P[B]

40

collection of individual easily available to researcher

sample of convenience

41

random sample

ever unit has equal opportunity, selection of unit independent, minimizes bias, possible to measure sampling error

42

problem with sample of convenience

assume unbiased/independent- no guarantee

43

volunteer bias

health conscious, low income, ill, more time, angry, less prudish

44

frequency distribution

describes # of times each value of a variable occurs in sample

45

probability distribution

distribution of variable in whole population

46

absolute frequency

# of times value is observed

47

relative frequency

proportion of individuals which have that value

48

experimental studies can

determine cause and effect
*cause

49

observational studies can

only point to cause
*correlations

50

quantifying precision

smaller range of values (spread)

51

determining accuracy

usually can't- don't know true value

52

nominal categorical data with 2 choices

binomial

53

why aim for numerical data

it can be converted to categorical if need be

54

species richness

discrete (count)

55

rates

continuous

56

large sample

less effected by chance
lower sampling error
lower bias

57

rounding

round to one decimal place more than measurement (in calculations)

58

higher CV

more variability

59

proportions

p^ = # of observations in category of interest/ total # of observations in all categories

60

sum of squares

it is squared so that each value is +, so they don't cancel each other out
n-1 to account for population bias