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Flashcards in bio ch 7 Deck (59):
1

what organic chemistry studies

study of carbon containing compounds

2

significance of homeostasis with regards to enzymes

Cells depend on enzymes to speed up the many chemical reactions that keep the cell alive--enzymes work best at particular temperatures and homeostasis maintains a constant body temperature.

3

Organelles

structures within a cell that have special functions (little organs)

4

Cytoplasm

portion of cell outside the nucleus Cyto = cell

5

three parts of the cell theory

All living things are made of cells
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things (smallest units of life)
New cells are made from existing cells

6

how we find the objective when viewing a sample under a microscope

To get the total magnification take the power of the objective (4X, 10X, 40x) and multiply by the power of the eyepiece,

7

prokaryotes

Cells that do not have a nucleus (bacteria, archairia)

8

eukaryotes

cells that have a nucleus(protists, fungi, plants, animals)

9

what are diffusion and osmosis forms of

passive transport

10

exocytosis

taking material out of cell

11

endocytosis

taking materials into the cell

12

multicellular life

Multicellular organisms specialize their cells for particular task & communicate with each other, ususally with hormones to mantain homeostasis

13

single celled organisms

Single celled creatures grow, respond to environment, transform energy & reproduce.

14

how active transport differs from diffusion or osmosis

Active transport requires chemical energy because it moves biochemicals from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration. Passive trasport doesn’t require energy because it moves biochemicals from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.

15

cells impacted by isotonic solutions

cell is unchanged

16

cells impacted by hypotonic

cell swells as water enters to dilute the [high] outside the cell

17

cells impacted by hypertonic

cell shrinks as water leaves the cell to dilute [high] outside the cell

18

osmosis

Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

19

what it's called when diffusion stop

It’s called equilibrium when it stops:

20

when does diffusion stop

Diffusion stops when molecules are even throughout space

21

what direction diffusion travels

all over

22

what establishes diffusion

particles

23

Scientist who produced ‘Photo 51’, an X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA

rosalind franklin

24

Brilliant American scientist whose progress on DNA’s structure put great pressure on the British teams to find a solution

linus pauling

25

Frustrated and disgruntled, this scientist showed Photo 51 to other scientists without the consent of the photo’s owner.

maurice wilkins

26

An Austro-Hungarian biochemist who found that certain nitrogenous bases always existed in specific proportions.

erwin chargaff

27

Passionate American scientist who ‘put the pieces together,’ developing a successful model of DNA

james watson

28

British scientist who had calculated the predicted X-ray diffraction pattern of a double helix.

francis crick

29

theory

a well tested explanation supported by verified hypothesis and broad explanation

30

inference

a logical interpretation of an observation

31

homeostasis

constant internal temperature

32

what is science and what is it not?

a process but not a belief system

33

science's goals

provide explanation for events in the natural world
use them to understand patterns + make useful predictions

34

General process of experimental design

designed experiment that has all variables controlled save one. if the changed one affects the experiment, its concluded that its involved with the observed phenonenom

35

What is the purpose of a control?

a setup that has all conditions unchanged from the original scenario

36

dependent variable

result to the independent variable

37

independent variable

the variable in the experiment that's been changed from the control set-up

38

Hypothesis

research prediction that can be testable, hypothesis are most effective using if...then...because statements-researched positions

39

qualitative data

data that is descriptive can't be counted or measured

40

quantitative data

data that can be counted or measured

41

bias

personal preference in or point of view should be avoided in scientific research

42

speculation

a hypothesis that can be tested

43

characteristics of all living things

made of cells, can reproduce, contains DNA, can grow+develop, has a metabolism & use materials for energy, maintain homeostasis & evolution

44

photosynthesis

plants use the sun's energy to make glucose

45

pigment

molecule that selectively absorbs light

46

chlorophyll

main pigment of plants

47

What condition leads to the process of fermentation being used?

no oxygen

48

what is the purpose of making by-products through fermentation?

doesnt use oxygen

49

Understand the relationship between fermentation and glycolysis

fermentation is the sue of glycolysis to make ATP in the absence of of oxygen

50

Can multicellular organisms sustain fermentation

no

51

Understand why cellular respiration is essential to multicellular life.

it provides the energy for living organisms to perform all of the other necessary functions to maintain life.

52

Is cell respiration exothermic or endothermic? Explain.

exothermic, it releases energy

53

What is the ultimate source of energy for all living things?

the sun

54

How is ATP different from ADP in terms of numbers of phosphate?

ATP has 3 phosphates, ADP had 2.

55

Is photosynthesis an exothermic or endothermic reaction? Explain.

endothermic because it's taking energy in to build the glucose

56

nucleotide

monomers that make up DNA

57

double helix

two strands wound around each other

58

dna polymerase

enzyme responsible for DNA replication

59

functions of nucleic acid

they're macromolecules that store or transmit RNA - genetic information