Flashcards in bio ch 7 Deck (59):
what organic chemistry studies
study of carbon containing compounds
significance of homeostasis with regards to enzymes
Cells depend on enzymes to speed up the many chemical reactions that keep the cell alive--enzymes work best at particular temperatures and homeostasis maintains a constant body temperature.
structures within a cell that have special functions (little organs)
portion of cell outside the nucleus Cyto = cell
three parts of the cell theory
All living things are made of cells
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things (smallest units of life)
New cells are made from existing cells
how we find the objective when viewing a sample under a microscope
To get the total magnification take the power of the objective (4X, 10X, 40x) and multiply by the power of the eyepiece,
Cells that do not have a nucleus (bacteria, archairia)
cells that have a nucleus(protists, fungi, plants, animals)
what are diffusion and osmosis forms of
taking material out of cell
taking materials into the cell
Multicellular organisms specialize their cells for particular task & communicate with each other, ususally with hormones to mantain homeostasis
single celled organisms
Single celled creatures grow, respond to environment, transform energy & reproduce.
how active transport differs from diffusion or osmosis
Active transport requires chemical energy because it moves biochemicals from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration. Passive trasport doesn’t require energy because it moves biochemicals from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
cells impacted by isotonic solutions
cell is unchanged
cells impacted by hypotonic
cell swells as water enters to dilute the [high] outside the cell
cells impacted by hypertonic
cell shrinks as water leaves the cell to dilute [high] outside the cell
Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
what it's called when diffusion stop
It’s called equilibrium when it stops:
when does diffusion stop
Diffusion stops when molecules are even throughout space
what direction diffusion travels
what establishes diffusion
Scientist who produced ‘Photo 51’, an X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA
Brilliant American scientist whose progress on DNA’s structure put great pressure on the British teams to find a solution
Frustrated and disgruntled, this scientist showed Photo 51 to other scientists without the consent of the photo’s owner.
An Austro-Hungarian biochemist who found that certain nitrogenous bases always existed in specific proportions.
Passionate American scientist who ‘put the pieces together,’ developing a successful model of DNA
British scientist who had calculated the predicted X-ray diffraction pattern of a double helix.
a well tested explanation supported by verified hypothesis and broad explanation
a logical interpretation of an observation
constant internal temperature
what is science and what is it not?
a process but not a belief system
provide explanation for events in the natural world
use them to understand patterns + make useful predictions
General process of experimental design
designed experiment that has all variables controlled save one. if the changed one affects the experiment, its concluded that its involved with the observed phenonenom
What is the purpose of a control?
a setup that has all conditions unchanged from the original scenario
result to the independent variable
the variable in the experiment that's been changed from the control set-up
research prediction that can be testable, hypothesis are most effective using if...then...because statements-researched positions
data that is descriptive can't be counted or measured
data that can be counted or measured
personal preference in or point of view should be avoided in scientific research
a hypothesis that can be tested
characteristics of all living things
made of cells, can reproduce, contains DNA, can grow+develop, has a metabolism & use materials for energy, maintain homeostasis & evolution
plants use the sun's energy to make glucose
molecule that selectively absorbs light
main pigment of plants
What condition leads to the process of fermentation being used?
what is the purpose of making by-products through fermentation?
doesnt use oxygen
Understand the relationship between fermentation and glycolysis
fermentation is the sue of glycolysis to make ATP in the absence of of oxygen
Can multicellular organisms sustain fermentation
Understand why cellular respiration is essential to multicellular life.
it provides the energy for living organisms to perform all of the other necessary functions to maintain life.
Is cell respiration exothermic or endothermic? Explain.
exothermic, it releases energy
What is the ultimate source of energy for all living things?
How is ATP different from ADP in terms of numbers of phosphate?
ATP has 3 phosphates, ADP had 2.
Is photosynthesis an exothermic or endothermic reaction? Explain.
endothermic because it's taking energy in to build the glucose
monomers that make up DNA
two strands wound around each other
enzyme responsible for DNA replication