biology ch 8-9 Flashcards Preview

english, nm history, theology, biology, spanish > biology ch 8-9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in biology ch 8-9 Deck (36):
1

Photosynthesis

plants use the sun's energy to make glucose

2

pigment

molecule that selectively absorbs light

3

chorophylll

main pigment of plants

4

ATP

chemical source for energy for a cell

5

What is the ultimate source of energy for all living things?

the sun

6

How is ATP different from ADP in terms of numbers of phosphate?

ATP has 3 phosphates, ADP had 2.

7

Know the equation for photosynthesis, and what the products and reactants are.

6C02+6H20 ====> C6H1206+602
Light
Carbon +water===> glucose to oxygen
dioxide

8

Is photosynthesis an exothermic or endothermic reaction? Explain.

endothermic because it's taking energy in to build the glucose

9

Why do plant leaves appear green?

chlorophyll reflects green light

10

How does ATP synthase make ATP?

Once three protons have entered the matrix space, there is enough energy in the ATP synthase complex to synthesize one ATP.

11

Where do light independent reactions take place? What are these reactions called?

in the stroma- the empty space
the calvin cycle

12

What is the ultimate outcome of the Calvin cycle?

glucose and oxygen

13

Know 3 factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis, and be able to distinguish the effects of these factors in experimental data.

water light and temperature

14

Understand the functions of roots, stems, and leaves, especially as they pertain to photosynthesis in a plant.


Roots Stems Leaves
↓ ↓ ↓
pull in resources transport produce
for the plants resources glucose

15

Glycolysis

process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, creating 2 molecules

16

Aerobic

requires oxygen

17

What kinds of organisms use cell respiration?

bacteria, archaea, plants, protists, animals, and fungi

18

How does the circulatory system (heart, blood, and vessels) work in conjunction with the respiratory system?

the circulatory system supplies oxygen and nutrients to our bodies by working with the respiratory system. At the same time, the circulatory system helps carry waste and carbon dioxide out of the body. Hormones — produced by the endocrine system — are also transported through the blood in the circulatory system

19

why is the circulatory system and respiratory system working together important in terms of cell respiration?

Each time you breathe in, the respiratory system
takes in the oxygen that your cells require to carry out cellular respiration. Carbon dioxide and water are also produced when cells carry out cellular respiration. Your body gets rid of carbon dioxide every time you
breathe out.

20

Know the equation for cell respiration. How do the products and reactants of cell respiration relate to those of photosynthesis?

6O2 + C6H2O6 ==>6CO2 + 6H2O +ATP
oxygen + glucose ==> carbon + water +energy
dioxide

21

Is cell respiration exothermic or endothermic? Explain.

exothermic, it releases energy

22

What is the ultimate outcome of cellular respiration?

energy

23

Can multicellular organisms sustain fermentation

no

24

Understand why cellular respiration is essential to multicellular life.

it provides the energy for living organisms to perform all of the other necessary functions to maintain life.

25

Understand the type of fermentation conducted by humans, and the impact that its by-product can have on the body.

lactic acid fermentation. makes muscles burn during strenuous exercise.

26

Understand the relationship between fermentation and glycolysis

fermentation is the sue of glycolysis to make ATP in the absence of of oxygen

27

what is the purpose of making by-products through fermentation?

doesn't use oxygen

28

What condition leads to the process of fermentation being used?

no oxygen

29

What are the possible by-products of fermentation?

lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation

30

why does one of them make our muscles burn after strenuous exercise and which one?

the lactic acid and it builds up

31

some of the food products that are made using fermentation.

cheese, yogurt, other dairy products

32

How is ATP made through the e- transport chain?

the electron transport chain uses high energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to make ADP into ATP

33

How many ATP molecules are produced by fermentation/glycolysis? How many are produced by cellular respiration (including glycolysis)?

fermentation/glycolysis produces 2 ATP. cellular respiration produces 36 ATP - 2 glycolysis and 34 Krebs/Transportation chain

34

Which is stored in the cell? Which is used for cellular energy?

ADP is stored then the extra phosphate is added to make ATP when the cell needs energy.

35

How is this different from photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis: obtains energy, is endothermic, and takes place in the chloroplast. Cell respiration breaks down glucose for energy, is exothermic, and takes place in the mitochondria.

36

An air-breathing organ (ABO), in addition to gill respiration, appeared in fishes about 400 M years ago. It consisted of a single primitive lung ventilated by a buccal pump. This breathing system was adopted by the first terrestrial tetrapods, and is largely preserved in current amphibians. In the Amniotes, the buccal pulsing pump has been replaced with a costal aspiration pump. In mammals, this ABO evolved into a bronchoalveolar lung. In "Reptiles", the ABO is a partitioned lung with one or several cavities. It serves as a gas exchanger but also as an O(2) reserve, which allows for long periods of apnoea. In birds, the ABO is a tubular structure ventilated by unidirectional airflow. Such a breathing system allows for high rates of O(2) consumption. The diversity of structure and function of the Vertebrate lung should not be analysed as a progression of increasing complexity towards mammal lungs, but rather as diverse responses to varying environmental conditions and phylogenic constraints, and to the challenge of acquiring oxygen necessary for aerobic metabolism.

okay