Flashcards in QUESTIONS NM HISTORY FINAL Deck (13)
EQ1: What were the five causes of New Mexico’s delayed statehood?
People in the US opposed it because of the largely hispanic & native american population that was considered “too foreign
too foreign meaning not loyal to the US. this idea was helped by the Taos Revolt
Territorial politics hurt New Mexico’s chances at statehood - government was corrupt
Beveridge was on the committee for territories becoming states & hated New Mexico
National politics interfered in New Mexico’s progress
Southern senators believed NM was on the North’s side of issues and withdrew their votes
The Indian Wars were costly & long = New Mexico’s image was of a violent place
Geronimo was an Apache leader famous for evading US capture
It was seen as one of the last lawless enclaves of the Wild West
The Lincoln County War was a famous late 19th century feud between two factions in southern
NM the made Billy the Kid a household name
it was murders between businesses sparked by
John Tunstall's death
EQ2: What developments allowed New Mexicans to eventually overcome each of these five delays?
NM had one of the highest enrollments in the spanish-american war.
The rough riders were a famous fighting unit made up of men from Texas + NM. Marcelina Serna + others died in the war for america. The railroad helped to connect NM to the rest of the U.S.
By 1900, the Santa Fe ring was gone and most of the corruption went with it.
The issue of slavery had nothing to do with NM.
Our constitution was very safe + sane
Native Americans weren’t hostile anymore since the long walk, navajo promised to not raid. Geronimo surrendered when he was old
helped people to see how long ago it was.
NM became less of a take things into your own hands state.
the state got more state + county officers to stop crime. Outlaws were captured. It got a new state penitentiary in 1885.
EQ 3: In what ways was NM’s 1910 Constitution a “safe and sane” document? In what one way was it NOT?
New Mexico’s executive branch was run by separately elected officials- PLURAL EXECUTIVE
Governors could only serve ONE term without re-election
the legislature only met ONE month a year
This ensured that new mexico couldn’t really do anything
New Mexico didn’t take stances on controversial issues. Our state was afraid of having yet another chance at statehood rejected. Under Luna’s leadership, NM singled out Hispanic voting rights – each NM citizen was allowed to vote regardless of his race, religion, or the language he spoke & Hispanic education rights – no segregation between Anglo and Hispanic students would ever be allowed in NM. These two issues were singled out as requiring a ¾ state – 2/3 county majority vote to change. This is a VERY high bar, and that’s why they’re referred to as the IRONCLAD CLAUSES.
EQ 4: Through their exhibit at the P-C Exposition, how did New Mexicans seek to popularize New Mexico as a place that was both “typically American” and “exotic”?
Cities that hosted expositions demonstrated that they’d “arrived” on the world stage. NM had already done well as a territory in the 1904 World’s Fair in St. Louis. NM’s EXHIBIT was based on the church at Acoma Pueblo; the style of the building established the Pueblo-Revival style as NMs signature architecture. The building was filled with murals, paintings, architectural models, and natural specimens. it had a movie produced about NM’s economy, soldiers, patriotism + new flag. Showed how new mexico had a blooming future and had children, new roads, and a new car industry. Showing how they are more patriotic and that even though they are exotic they are reliable .
EQ 5: What role(s) did New Mexico and New Mexicans play in the preparation for and prosecution of America’s WWI campaign?
NM had one of the highest volunteer rates of the states. 15,000 new mexicans served in the army, 8000 new mexicans were inducted in the nation’s 1st draft since the civil war. 7000 volunteered for the navy or the marines.At war only 4 new mexicans deserted. 501 died in combat or from disease; many earned medals for acts of bravery. Furthermore, NMs bought more that $7 million more in Liberty Bonds than the government requested. 3000 families had victory gardens which were gardens in backyards that would feed families rather than eating packaged food that could go to the soldiers. At the homefront, women would roll bandages, sell bonds, and make comfort kits. Others formed the Women’s Land Army - a group of women making up for the labor shortage. Women also worked in factories. The government would reduce sentences if prisoners would also help with the labor shortage. New Mexicans of German descent or New Mexicans who remained opposed to US intervention were persecuted, sometimes violently, by overzealous patriots; the german language was banned in 1918.
EQ 6: How and why did New Mexico become a haven for modernist artists and intellectuals during the 1920s and 1920s?
New Mexico was a unique blend of cultures—Hispanic, Native American, Anglo—that was unknown to most Americans at the time.
Excellent light and climate for plein air –outdoor painting—and beautiful, varied landscapes for painting.
Cheap cost of living for “starving artists” and a growing community of likeminded, creative people.
Mabel Dodge Stern built a large adobe house named Los Gallos that served as a bed-n-breakfast for many famous, artist friends: Georgia O'Keeffe, a painter who later moved to NM for the rest of her life & D.H. Lawrence, an English writer who bought a house in Taos and lived there off and on for several years afterwards. Artists created organizations devoted to preserving and promoting the Hispanic and Native American cultures in NM—Indian Arts Fund, Spanish Colonial Arts Society, Old Santa Fe Association.
EQ 7: What factors helped New Mexico establish itself as a health center and tourist attraction during the 1920s?
Route 66 brought 1000s of motorists came down the road every month. Towns alongside the road boomed with restaurants, motels, shops catering to the car traffic. Sites: White Sands, Gila Wilderness, Jemez/Ojo Caliente Hot Springs, & Carlsbad Caverns- discovered by Jim White, he started taking tourists down in buckets in 1922. The Santa Fe Fiesta: started in 1919, it was big by late 1920, it culminates in the burning of Zozobra – a creation of artists Will Shuster & Gustave Baumann. Tuberculosis- white plague was the leading killer in the US. The doctors advised lungers to get rest + fresh air which NM had plenty of. Patients mostly spent time sleeping and would get light exercise. New Mexico’s low cost of living made it possible for poor lungers to chase the cure outside of sanatoriums. Sanatoriums popped up all over NM (later became hospitals). Many TB patients went on to thrive in our state. Clinton P. Anderson refused to give up his journalistic career while chasing the cure to TB. After recovery, he went on to become a Congressman and Senator for New Mexico. Katherine Stinson-Otero was a TB survivor who went on to marry the governor and become an award-winning architect.
EQ 8: What kinds of social changes occurred in New Mexico during the 1920s?
Women finally got the right to vote when in February 1920, New Mexico’s state legislature passed the 19th amendment, making NM the 32nd state in the Union to approve this reform and 6 months later, 75% of states approved it making the amendment officially ratified. Women cast their first votes in November 1920 - there was a 58% increase of voters since 1916. In 1921, women were given the basic right to serve in public office: Nina Otero-Warren was the 1st woman to run for Congress - although she lost, she had a good campaign. In 1922, Soledad Chavez de Chacon was elected as New Mexico’s 1st female secretary of state, in 1924 -she became the 1st woman governor which despite her not being elected was a huge step. The Great Depression began, and the prohibition began. Which then included mafia, bootlegging, and people coming to New Mexico to cross the border to Mexico with the alcohol. Also the direct method was implemented with caused even more segregation by forcing Spanish speaking children to learn and use English and only English, and to abandon their original heritage.
EQ 9: What caused the Great Depression? How did FDR seek to fix it using the New Deal?.
increased production & consumption
“the Roaring Twenties” – following World War I, people bought mass-produced consumer goods and machines; many financed these purchases using credit or installment plans; agriculture and business increased production to meet demand, again through debt
stock market speculation & crash
the boom during the 20s fueled the rise of stock market investment & many people began to value companies (futures) at more than they were actually worth; this created huge opportunities for quick profits buying stocks & banks began making loans to people for stock purchases – when enough people realized that perhaps the stocks weren’t worth as much as they were being sold for, a crash began
across the country, widespread unease over the trustworthiness of American banks led to a wave of bank runs that resulted in the failure of 1/3 of the country’s banks between 1930-31; the trend began with the Bank of United States run in NY, and it was made possible by the inaction of the Federal Reserve Bank ; the failure of so many banks made those that did survive unwilling to loan out money to business or individuals
the deflation spiral
the failure of so many banks wiped out a 1/3 of the currency that was in circulation during the 1920s; without this money in circulation, prices for goods and services began to decline, consumption dropped, and businesses took in less profit; this causes business to cut costs in order to stay afloat, which usually meant laying off workers; the newly unemployed stopped buying as many goods and services, which caused a further decline in production, consumption, and prices; which then causes business to make more layoffs, etc. etc. until 25% of American workers were unemployed
protectionism & the role of government
in 1930, aiming to protect American workers from more layoffs, Congress passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, which put a high tax on foreign goods in order to encourage Americans to buy American-made goods (thus saving American jobs); this law caused other countries around the world to retaliate and impose tariffs on American goods, resulting in a decrease in trade, production, and consumption worldwide
The New Deal: The government took the hit that the private businesses couldn’t, it was a massive set of federal legislation that created government-run programs to provide: RELIEF to suffering Americans through federal welfare & action, RECOVERY to the economy through federal funding for big projects + REFORM of the economic system to prevent future problems and guarantee work & a good standard of living for citizens.
EQ 10: How did the Great Depression and the New Deal affect New Mexicans?
The Great Depression hit every part of NM’s economy. Coal production value fell $5 million in 4 years. 1/2 of McKinley County’s 2000 coal miners lost their jobs and none still employed worked full time. The production value of copper, zinc, gold & silver fell from $24 million to less than $5 million in the span of 4 years. Hobbs’ population went from 20,000 to 1000 residents overnight. The Santa Fe Railroad lost 1/3 of its business income; 40% of its workers were laid off, those left worked only 4 days & wages fell by 25%. The unemployment rate in New Mexico was so high, 25% of skilled workers were unemployed. Women’s jobs were given to unemployed males that they might support their family- the jobs they worked so hard for. Young people often dropped out of school due to lack of funds or to work but even the educated faced unemployment. No incomes = families not paying taxes = public services reduced, usually education 1st. New Deal in NM: WPA benefitted almost every community in NM, hired as many 14,309 NM workers, it constructed roads, highways, bridges, city halls, post offices & etc. Federal Writers Project gave jobs to writers, Art Project did the same for artists. Problems with it: corruption in the WPA. the main problem with the new deal was that there was still discrimination toward the minorities, they would still not get the same job opportunities during this time and that caused harm towards their own income with they also needed to support their families. Also if they gained job opportunities they still would not be paid the same amount as a white worker.
EQ 11: What contributions did New Mexico and New Mexicans make to America’s prosecution of WWII?
EQ 11: What contributions did New Mexico and New Mexicans make to America’s prosecution of WWII?
Nuclear Weapons project; manhattan project, los alamos ranch school, Robert Oppenheimer. Part: 515th Coast Artillery Bataan Death March, hell ships navajo code talkers Internment camps: japanese american citizens were held for suspicion of being spies. Col. Charles G. Sage and 515th Coast Artillery were from NM, were the 1st to fight + last to surrender; they endured the Bataan Death March. Navajo Code. Col. Charles G. Sage and 515th Coast Artillery were from NM, were the 1st to fight + last to surrender; they endured the Bataan Death March & hell ships. Internment camps which were where american citizens were held for being japanese, they were taken from their lives, homes + families when they hadn’t done anything. In NM were in Santa Fe, Lordsburg + Former CCC Camps.Navajo Code Talkers were a major part of the war; their code remains unbreakable to the japanese despite having experts on the language. NM had highest per capita of volunteers in US- 50,000 and twice as many liberty bonds as rest of US. When the Manhattan project was handed over to J. Robert Oppenheimer, the base became Los Alamos Ranch School; good location because New Mexico had open spaces, ideal flying conditions + Los Alamos was remote - making it easy to secure. The project did succeed and the US had the 1st atomic bomb which ended the war when Truman dropped two atomic bombs on Japan.
EQ 12: How were New Mexico’s economy and society affected by the Cold War?
NM housed 4 military bases. Kirtland & Manzano was used for weapon storage. Walker was for weapons deployment and Cannon for f-100 fighter jets Hollowmen- space research. Paddy Martinez discovered uranium in mid 1950s: copper and zinc where it is still used in weapons but coal went down. With new labs and operations the population grew. Uranium boom in Grant. Farmington near oil + gas fields made its population triple. Crude oil increased just under 2 million oil 37 to 120 gas 12.4
But schools became overcrowded and the water pollution increased in rural communities. With higher crime rates led to prison overcrowding leading to two prison riots. In the 50s nm was dominated by suspicion of their gov for secret programs and of communists.