Biology 102 Final Flashcards Preview

Sophomore Year > Biology 102 Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology 102 Final Deck (44):
1

karyotype

- picture of chromosomes
- chromosomes come in pairs (n = 23 and humans have 2n)

2

gametes

- haploid cells
- one set of chromosomes (1n)

3

sexual reproduction

- offspring are genetically different from parents/each other

4

meiosis

- cell division to produce sex cells
- diploid to haploid cells

5

independent assortment

every chromosome orients independently of others during meiosis

6

crossing over

- pieces of homologous non-sister chromatids exchange
- translocation

7

SRY gene

- sex determining region of Y chromosome
- ovaries develop as default unless told otherwise

8

non-disjunction, meiosis I

- problems with homologous chromosome separation

9

non-disjunction, meiosis II

- homologous chromosomes separate but sister chromatids do not

10

DNA sequence problems/mutations

- down syndrome
- XXY > Klinefelters [male]
- XXX > Metafemale
- XO > Turners syndrome [female]

11

pedigree

history of a trait in a family > upside down family tree

12

phenotype

- external characteristics expressed
- shown on pedigree

13

genotype

- genetic makeup
- might carry a certain trait but never express

14

incomplete dominance

- dominance is incomplete > in between phenotype with heterozygote
- i.e. wavy hair is in between curly and straight > both traits expressed

15

codominance

- both alleles contribute to expression of the gene
- no dominance > work together
- i.e blood type > A, B, AB

16

polygenic inheritance

- certain traits affected by multiple genes
- i.e. skin color affected by 3 different genes

17

asexual reproduction

- 1 parent produces genetically IDENTICAL offspring
- multiply quickly, no partner, isolation is not an issue, no disease/diversity
- same genotype can cause issues since 1 disease can wipe out the population > no diversity/growth

18

sexual reproduction

- fusion of gametes from two individuals [humans = egg & sperm]
- advantage = genetic variability
- disadvantage = find a mate

19

internal fertilization

- occurs with the female body

20

external fertilization

egg & sperm released into the open and hope they find each other

21

bacterial STDs/STIs

- can be treated if detected early without long-term effects
- i.e. Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis

22

fungal

- can be treated
- candidiasis

23

protists

- can be treated
- i.e. Trichomonaisis

24

viral STDs/STIs

- treatment but no cure
- i.e. HIV/AIDS, genital warts, genital herpes, hepatitis B

25

male reproduction

- testes produce sperm
- epididymis stores sperm
- vas deferens transports sperm
- vasectomy > cut the tube

26

sperm

- put in seminal fluid that is produced in seminal vesicle
- prostate gland also produces seminal fluid (30%)
- travel through urethra and out
- hormones secreted by anterior pituitary signal sperm production

27

female reproduction

- anterior pituitary releases FSH [follicle stimulating hormone] > follicle growth > progesterone from corpus luteum tells pituitary not to release FSH or LH because female might be pregnant > estrogen communicates with pituitary to send LH

28

ovary

- releases estrogen > affects uterus
- LH sent > oocyte released > corpus luteum (oocyte scar tissue) release progesterone to keep padding endometrium

29

uterus

- relayed info from estrogen [ovaries] thickens lining [endometrium]
- scar tissue dies with no sperm > no progesterone > lining thins/sloughs off > cycle starts over

30

birth control - gametes don't meet

- celibacy/absinence
- rhythm method > can track it but body can be unpredictable

31

vasectomy

cutting of the vas deferens > still have ejaculate but no sperm

32

tubal ligation

cut and tie fallopian tubes/oviducts/uterine tubes

33

birth control - stopping sperm

- condom [male/female]
- diaphragm
- pulling out > not usually effective [precum]

34

birth control - sperm killed

spermicide

35

birth control - no ovulation

- pill
- patch
- injectable
* certain levels of estrogen/progesterone
*trick body into thinking it's pregnant > shut down FSH & LH

36

birth control - no implantation

- intrauterine device (IUD)
- morning after pill

37

Fertilization

- oocyte and sprem meet > become zygote > up to 8 cell stage they are totipotent (all 8 could become humans)
- identical multiple birth pregnancy

38

tubal pregnancy

- zygote implants in fallopian tube
- not viable > could be life threatening if tube bursts > child will not survive

39

embryonic development

- placenta connects to embryo via umbilical cord

40

fetal alcohol syndrome

- mild to severe handicap
- caused when woman drinks/smokes/does drugs while pregnant

41

prenatal detection > non-invasive

- ultrasound
- maternal blood sampling

42

prenatal detection > invasive

- Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
- amniocentesis > test amniotic fluid

43

labor process

- oxytocin released from hypothalamus/ posterior pituitary
- causes muscle contractions in uterus
- baby's head presses on cervix
- delivery of baby through cervix/vagina pushed via uterine contractions from oxytocin
- cycle broken once baby is born
- uterus expels placenta

44

labor

- positive feedback process
- 3 stages