Biology 104 - Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology 104 - Exam 3 Deck (130):
1

Echinoderms

- phylum: echinodemata
- bilateral larvae, radial adults, no cephalization, true coelom, complete digestive, no segment, water vascular system
- sea stars, sea cucumbers, sand dollars

2

water vascular system

system of canals that circulate water
- gas exchange, waste disposal, locomotion, feeding

3

Chordates

- phylum: chordata
- 4 characteristics --> notochord, dorsal nerve chord, pharyngeal slits, postanal tale

4

notochord

flexible rod that runs along the back --> spinal discs in humans

5

dorsal nerve chord

spinal chord and brain

6

pharyngeal slits

feeding slits

7

postanal tale

tail (animals i.e. dog/cat), human tail develops away

8

tunicates and lancelets

- ectotherms
- closest modern day representatives of ancestor chordates
- tunicata: sessile adults, free-swimming larvae
- cephalachordata
- filter feeders

9

hagfishes

- ectotherms, endoskeleton, slime production
- eat dead/dying animals
- subphyla craniata

10

lampreys

- endoskeleton of cartilage/bone including backbone or cranium
- jaws of cartilage or bone, ectotherms, cranium and vertebrae
- simplest chordates that have a layer of support surrounding nerve chord

11

jawed fishes

agile swimmers, most carnivorous, lateral line system

12

lateral line system

row of sensory organs along body length

13

cartilaginous fishes

flexible cartilage skeleton, thick/fleshy fins, respiration through the gills, adept predators --> poor eyesight, good smell, electrosensors on head to detect movement of animals

14

bony fishes

common seas/freshwater, skeleton reinforced by hard calcium salts, keen smell/eyesight, lateral line system, operculum

15

operculum

gil chamber flap that allows for movement/no movement

16

ray finned

- fins supported by skeletal rays, gas bladder (buoyancy)

17

lobe finned

- swim bladder assists in respiration, muscular fins supported by stout bones
- lungfishes, coelacanth

18

amphibians

- first to inhabit land
- descended from fishes with lungs
- first limbs/lungs --> skeletal support precursor to limbs
- reproduction still tied to water
- adapted to freshwater/land habitats
- improved respiratory organs, circulation, skeleton system, tear glands
- reproduction --> egg + sperm released, metamorphosis

19

reptiles

- amniotic egg protected by shell
- non-avian reptiles have dry/scaly skin, kidney's absorb water, well-developed lungs, internal fertilization
- non-avian (ectothermic), birds (endothermic)

20

birds

- thought to be dinosaur descendants
- powerful breast muscles, keel-like breastbone
- wing shape dependent on habitat
- honeycomb structure of bones makes them light and durable
- some internal organs absent to reduce weight
- high demand for energy --> powerful heart and lungs
- feathers made of keratin --> same as non-avian scales
- insulation, attract mate --> not at all used in flight

21

monotremes

- platypus, echidna
- lays eggs --> young hatch --> feeds on the mother

22

marsupials

- brief gestation to live birth
- young develop while attached to mother, usually in a pouch
- kangaroos, opossum, koala

23

placental mammals

- young develop in womb and have live birth
- placenta joins mother to the embryo
- humans, zebra, elephant, dogs, some aquatic animals

24

Primates

- evolved from small tree-dwelling, insect-eating creatures about 65 MYA
- shared characteristics: opposable thumbs, sensitive hands/fingers and toes with flat nails, no claws, close set eyes with binocular vision, large brain

25

prosimians

- lorises, pottos, lemurs (Lorids)
- omnivorous, Madagascar/S. Asia/Africa
- Tarsiers: tree-dwelling carnivores
- SE Asia, nocturnal, insectivores

26

simians

- new world --> arboreal with prehensile tail used for swinging
- old world --> some arboreal without prehensile tail, some ground dwelling

27

hominids - locomotion

- free swinging, running with large hands/long arms
- bipedalism in humans
- shorter arms, longer/stronger legs, foot bones form support, pelvis supports body, vertebrae adds flexibility in lower back, foramen magnum tucked under skull

28

hominids - feeding/diet

- skull ridge, size/shape of skull useful
- sagittal crest as point of attachment for jaw muscles
- molars grind, crush, mash food
- size of the jaw bones/protrusion, tooth row curvature

29

Australopiths

- foremen magnum positioned downward --> upright walking

30

Paranthropus

- large teeth, protruding jaws, skull with sagittal crest

31

Homo

- associated with stone tools
- larger bodies/brains
- smaller teeth, lighter/less protruding jaw/larger skull/brain case
- lighter brow ridges

32

evolution of humankind through natural selection

- likely spurred by environmental changes
- upright bipedalism --> advantageous in new habitat
- selection pressure i.e. skin pigment

33

ecology

interactions between organisms & the environment (biotic factors + abiotic factors)

34

environmentalism

advocacy of preservation, restoration, or improvement of the natural environment especially in relation to pollution

35

pollution

contamination of soil, water, or the atmosphere by the discharge of harmful substances

36

population ecology

study of how populations interact with the environment
- explore how factors influence age, size, density, growth rate of population

37

habitat

physical location where population members normally live

38

density

the number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume of a habitat
- varies among species
- usually estimated by sampling

39

population growth

population births - population deaths

40

population growth rate

change in population size per unit

41

birth rate

how many new organisms are added to the population each year

42

death rate

how many organisms leave/die in the population

43

life table

probability of surviving to a certain age
- table creates survivorship curve

44

Type I

- usually seen with humans and other large vertebrates
- low mortality rate

45

Type II

- many birds and some mammals
- age dependent mortality --> in the middle

46

Type III

- fish, invertebrates, plants
- high mortality rate

47

exponential population growth

- number of individuals added increases in proportion to population size
- J-shaped curve

48

logistic population growth

- population growth slows & levels off as resources become limited
- S-shaped curve

49

carrying capacity

- limit of individuals that a habitat can maintain or accommodate
- growth rate declines as carrying capacity reached
- depends on species/habitat/resources

50

density-dependent factors

- those that intensify as population density increases
- individuals compete for resources
- disease prevalence or predation may increase
- typically have more of an effect before independent factors

51

density-independent factors

- those unrelated to population density
- seasonal freezing, fire, floods, storms, environmental changes etc.

52

life history

organisms strategy for reproduction and survival
- age of first reproduction
- number/size of offspring
- energy cost of reproduction
- parental responsibility

53

opportunistic species

- tend to be short lived, reproduce at early age, many offspring that receive little care
- population growth rate may be high under optimal conditions
- Type III survivorship curve
- plants, many insects

54

equilibrium species

- long lives, mature later, extended parental care
- high probability of surviving
- mammals, some birds, some insects
- Type I & Type II survivorship curves

55

age structure

diagrams that help predict trends in growth

56

habitat

physical space with specific characteristics where organisms live

57

niche

all the resources required for survival growth & reproduction

58

climate

- sunlight/sunlight intensity
- light & temperature variation in precipitation via air conduction patterns

59

tilt

relative to the sun, leads to seasonal temperature changes
- Earth: 23.5 degree tilt

60

convection cells

warm and cool air cycle
- air first cools, cause water to condense and fall --> rain

61

biodiversity

We are losing biodiversity through scarce and polluted resources, and a changing climate.

62

Two major biomes

Terrestrial, aquatic

63

Primary Producers (terrestrial)

Plants primary producers (determined by climate)

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primary producers (aquatic)

phytoplankton are primary producers (determined by physical conditions)

65

distribution of biomes

depends largely on precipitation and temperature

66

Polar Ice

temp is cold, dry and windy, phytoplankton in ice and ocean water are primary producers.

67

Tundra

very cold, dry; subsoil permanently frozen (permafrost); small plants with shallow roots; animals with thick fur; 20% of land surface; less animal diversity in Southern H. than Northern H.

68

Taiga

cold and abundantly dry, abundant coniferous trees; some mammals and birds stay year round.

69

Temperate rain forest

mild winters, cool summers, abundant rain, large conifers, amphibians, mammals, and fish.

70

Temperate deciduous forest

warm summers, cold winters, consistent rainfall, trees and migratory animals are common, lots of trees.

71

Temperate grassland

hot summers, cold winters, moderately moist, summertime drought, fires, grazing prevent tree growth.

72

Mediterranean shrub land (chaparral)

hot, dry summers, cool, moist winters, fire and drought resistant plants thrive here.

73

Desert

always dry; may be cool or hot, plants store water, and most animals come out at night time.

74

Tropical rainforest

warm and wet, highest species diversity of all the biomes, lots of herbivores and predators.

75

Aquatic biomes

occupy largest part of the biosphere, roughly 75% of earth's surface.
Determined by salinity

76

Freshwater Biome
(Standing bodies of water)

cover less than 1% of the earth, contain .01% of all earth's water supply,
-standing bodies of water: ponds, lakes, rivers, groundwater
-phytoplankton producers
-zooplankton consumers
-bacteria common in deep waters
-water depth/distance from shore determine distribution of biota

77

Freshwater Biome
(flowing bodies of water)

support different kinds of life, vary in character from source to downstream
-lakes, rivers, streams
-cold, clear, low in nutrients, swift
-Downstream water collects to create ponds
-consumers use smell rather than eyesight

78

Marine biome

3% is salt concentration, 97% of earth's water. Source of most rainfall on earth, home to most life on the planet, photosynthesis by marine algae, source of the biosphere's oxygen.

79

Intertidal zone

submerged or exposed ocean meets land, conditions vary with tide.

80

Coral reefs

occur in photic zone of warm tropical waters, algae primary producers, support diverse animal life, being destroyed.

81

Estuaries

freshwater meets ocean water
-salinity ranges depending on tide, usually bordered by mud flats
-biologically productive environment on earth, high in nutrients.
-threats: pollution, altered freshwater inflow, non-native species.

82

Competition

-/- Two or more species try to obtain the same limited resources: shelter, food, water, light, nutrients

83

Competitive exclusion principal

two species cannot coexist indefinitely in the same niche, one species wins. Exclusion not inevitable, species can agree to resource partitioning

84

Resource partitioning

resources used in a different way or at a different time

85

symbiosis

one species lives in or on another species (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism)

86

Mutualism

+/+ benefits both species, improves reproduction

87

Commensalism

+/0 one species benefits while the other species is unaffected

88

Parasitism

-/+ one species benefits at the expense of another

89

Predation

some species eat other species for energy and carbon

90

herbivores

eat plants for energy and carbon

91

adaptations

feeding on other organisms has negative effects on fitness. plants have adaptations such as: thorns, sap, distasteful, or poisonous
animals: camouflage, coloration, mimicry.

92

coevolution between species

adaptation in one species select for adaptation in another, species evolve in response to another

93

keystone species

predators that help save one species by eating the predatory species of that species

94

species richness

total # of species in a habitat

95

species evenness

the proportion of a community that each species occupies

96

ecological succession

process of gradual change in a community

97

Primary succession

occurs in an area where no life previously existed

98

Secondary succession

is caused by disturbances that disrupt biological communities
-disturbances destroy organisms, alter resource availability

99

pioneer species

first to colonize, determines other species
-rapid reproduction, efficient dispersal

100

Climax community

small-scale disturbances create patchy distribution of succession across a landscapr

101

Ecosystem processes

1. energy flow through an ecosystem
2. chemical cycling between abiotic and biotic

102

food chains/ webs

a series of organisms that successively eat one another.
many energy and nutrient transfers

103

trophic level

position of an organisms in a food chain relative to energy source
producers-primary consumers-secondary consumers-tertiary consumers then all the waste= detritus and the decomposers eat that then break it down and the cycle starts again.

104

sunlight

tiny fraction converted to chemical energy. most absorbed, scattered, reflected by earth's atmosphere or surface

105

producers

algae, plants: fix energy as it enters an ecosystem (gross primary productivity).
used for building biomass and reproduction

106

net productivity

gross primary productivity- heat= net primary productivity.
heat is lost

107

productivity (terrestrial)

depends on water availability and temperature

108

productivity (aquatic)

depends on nutrient availability

109

10% rule

one tenth of the energy at one trophic level is available in the next trophic level.
at every conversion heat is lost

110

consumers

inefficiently get energy from what producers fix.
-energy pyramid
-10% rule varies- more like 2%-30%
-depends on digestibility and metabolic rate
corn(100kal)-cow(10kal)-human(1kal)

111

biomagnification

chemicals in biomass at a low level can be more concentrated at higher levels.

112

DDT

pesticide used to kill lice and mosquitos in the 1960's.

113

fat soluble

chemicals that are more likely to become concentrated.

114

biochemical cycling

recycling of elements between biotic and abiotic components.

115

four major reservoirs

Atmosphere, water, organisms, rocks/soil.
an element may combine with other elements.
some cycling relies only on geologic processes, bypassing the biotic (water cycle).

116

water cycle

producers/ consumers take up water from lake, river, pond, groundwater; they lose water by cellular respiration.
evaporation-atmosphere-rains down

117

carbon

element critical to life

118

carbon cycle

atmospheric CO2-photosynthesis converts CO2 to glucose- producers fix CO2-consumers eat-organic matter in soil broken down by decomposers- respiration returns CO2 to atmosphere.
atmosphere+oceans= slow cycle
rocks and soil+atmosphere=fast cycle

119

water CO2

dissolves in ocean- photosynthesis-aquatic food chain-respiration-back to atmosphere

120

Nitrogen

essential element, needed for creation of amino acids. 18% of atmosphere

121

nitrogen cycle

nitrogen fixation-bacteria and archaea fix to NH4. nitrates produce lightning

122

denitrifcation

convert NO3- NO2 happens in oxygen poor environments. Combustion happens through industry

123

phosphorus cycle

erosion (abiotic) releases phosphorus from rocks and sediments- decomposition returns it.
phosphorus dissolved-sedimentations-ocean sediments
too much applied causes pollution

124

phosphorus

needed for nucleotides, released by weathering

125

biodiversity

1. Variety of ecosystems
2. variety of species within a community
3. Variety within the genes of each species

126

diversity

loss of diversity limits potential new discoveries

127

endangered

immediate high extinction risk

128

vulnerable

likely to become extinct soon

129

extinction

losing a species, today 200 of 20,000 gone extinct. 20% freshwater fish gone extinct.

130

Mountain ranges

air is cooler at highest elevation.
block wind and moist air masses on upwind scale.