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Chapter 1: Sound

pitch:high/lowness
-register: range of pitches
-tone: certain pitch
-flat: half-step lower
-sharp: half-step higher
-forte: loud
-piano: soft
dynamic level: loud/softness
-crescendo:getting louder
-decrescendo/diminuendo: getting softer

1

Chapter 2: Rhythm

rhythm: arrangement of music, basic building materials
-beat: basic building element
-accents: strong beat among rhythm
Tempo: speed of music
Meter: organization of beats --> strong/weak
-measures/bars: unit containing fixed number of beats
-duple: two beats, STRONG-weak
-triple: three beats, STRONG-weak-weak
-quadruple: four beats, STRONG-weak-STRONG-weak

2

timbre

quality of sound specific to the instrument/voice
-same note can sound very different on different instruments

3

symphony orchestra

ensemble with all 4 instrument groups dominated by string section

4

string

-bowed/strung/struck/plucked
-viola, violin, cello, string bass, harp

5

woodwind

wind instruments, usually played with 1-2 reeds
-piccolo, flute, oboe, clarinet

6

brass

wind instruments, made of brassy material with flared bell end
-trumpet, trombone, french horn, tuba

7

percussion

played by shaking, rubbing, striking
-timpani, drums, chimes, tambourine, triangle, cymbals

8

ethos

moral and ethical qualities of music

9

acoustics

science of sound
-pythagorus: theory of music, plucking 2 strings to demonstrate tones an octave apart
-modes: seven note scales scales, range of an octave

10

classism vs. romanticism

two rival ideas/styles of music
-classical: restrained, objective style, Apollo, calm, spiritual --> lyre
-romantic: emotional, subjective style, drama, revelry --> aulo

11

Christian Music

church controlled the thoughts of people --> dfficult social & eononmic times
wanted to keep people away from other deities (Greek/Roman)
Jewish, Greek,and Eastern traditions adapted to help form the religion/music
-liturgy: rds of mass/order of service
-linear polyphony:music with multiple lines that is not meant to be harmonic
-syllabic: one syllable per note
-melismatic: multiple notes have one syllable

12

Hildegard of Bingen

benedictine abbess
famous for her composing in a time when many were anonymous - included more pitches than ordinary chant
-healing powers --> suffered from migranes and "visions" were side effects

13

Age of Humanism

-period that found new optimism in 14th century Italy
-spread through Europe in Renaissance

14

Guillaume de Machaut

secretary to the king of bohemia --> born in northern france
-Messe de Nostre Dame
-first complete musical setting of ordinary mass by 1 man
-sacred and secular music
-hocket: hiccup in music --> one person picks up where another leaves off

15

melody

sentence structure of music --> succession of pitches

16

major

7 notes
WWHWWWH

17

minor

natural/harmonic
WHWWHWW

18

harmony

two or more different tones played together

19

theme

recurring melody

20

chromatic

12 half-step notes

21

whole tone

6 whole notes

22

pentatonic

five note scale

23

lyrical melody

songlike melody

24

motive/motivic melody

short phrase that can be developed

25

chord

combo of 3+ tones

26

concert

any musical performance

27

recital

soloist/ensemble

28

concertmaster/mistress

conductors assistant