Music 103 - Test 4/Final Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Music 103 - Test 4/Final Deck (84):
0

post-romanticism

- acceptance to Wagner's ideas
- looked to music of earlier times
- styles bridged 19th & 20th centuries
- primitivism, expressionism, Impressionism

1

impressionism

- anti-german romanticism movement in France
- realistic effects through suggestion and impression
- went against all german ideals

2

primitivism

- second half of 20th century
- exoticism, non-western world
- unsophistication /simplicity --> works of art
- strong rhythms, dissonant combinations, narrow melodies, programmatic
- Paul Gaugin - The Day of the God

3

Strauss

- master of orchestration
- tonal harmony with extensive chromaticism, modulations, unresolved dissonances, frequently shifting rhythmic patterns
- orchestral works, tone poems, opera

4

Debussy

- effect --> more important than cause
- obscure tonality, unconventional approach, unusual instrument use, mod/expression supersede form
- wrote for piano
- whole tones, pentatonic
- influenced by travels

5

Gamelan

Indonesian orchestral band/rhythm

6

Stravinsky

- Russian, left at age 28
- composed music for ballets
- firebird, petrushka, le sacre du printemps

7

expressionism

- rise of the industrial revolution
- depicted cold/impersonal life
- interest in subconscious
- dark and abnormal --> highly emotional
- painting --> Van Gogh (starry night)
- literature --> strindberg

8

Schoenberg

- influenced by Brahms, Strauss, Wagner, Freud (psych)
- wrote atonal but preferred the term pan-tonality

9

twelve tone technique

- use all twelve tones
- glides from note to note
- emancipation of dissonance

10

cubism

- design with geometric planes and muted tones
- unrealistic but expressive

11

Ives

- experimentalism
- quarter tones, polytonality, space & chance
- General Putnam's camp

12

Cowell

- experimentalism
- tone clusters, innovative use of piano (strings)
- The Banshee

13

Babbitt

- 12 tone pieces
- total serialism with mathematical relationships b/w musical elements, concrete music, recordings
- ensembles for synthesizers

14

indeterminate, aleatory, random, chance music

leaving significant components to be determined by performers or chance

15

Cage

- placed things inside piano (prepared piano)
- experimented with silence, audience participation, aleatory music
- The Perilous Night

16

Oliveros

- composer, accordionist, educator
- qualities of sound, avoided meter/pulse, not symmetric
- sound patterns

17

Penderecki

- traditional polish folk music w/ avant-garde concepts
- medieval & early music styles, tone clusters, strong concern for human suffering
- extended range of traditional instruments
- Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima

18

Machover

- synthesize acoustics & electronic sounds, hyperinstruments
- enhanced performance => led to Guitar Hero
- Flora

19

hyperinstruments

electronic enhancement of instruments to extend sound & capability

20

prepared piano

- things placed inside piano to alter sound
- didn't know what sounds would be produced (chance sound)

21

les six

- Auric, Durey, Honegger, Milhaud, Poulenc, Tailleferre
- inspired by popular jazz cafe music heard in France
- typical french => wrote for entertainment

22

musicology

study of music

23

ethnomusicology

study of music w/ specific cultures

24

neoclassicism

- music b/w WWI & WWII
- classical, absolute, not programmatic, clear forms, balance, firm harmonies w/ 20th century sound , bitonal & polytonal chords/passages
- revivals of classical period music
- reflected the changes in social/political structure (1920s)

25

Prokofiev

- neoclassicist
- Russian composers were forbidden to use expressive compositions
- story telling/morals => peter and the wolf

26

Hindemith

- functional music (Gebrachsmusik), practical, strong harmonic use
- composed sonatas, solo concertos, music to accompany film/dance
- stir emotions => Trumpet sonata

27

Bartok

- child prodigy/hungarian composer
- Hungarian/other easter european countries folk music
- first ethnomusicologist => peasant music
- narrow melodies, sonorities, complicated arrangements, chords built on fourths, dissonance
- concerto for orchestra

28

Copeland

- studied with Boulanger in Paris
- influence of jazz, folk, tunes, hymns
- appalachian spring, fanfare for common man

29

Gershwin

- bridged gap between art & popular
- strong use of jazz
- rhapsody in blue
- porgy and bess => one of the earliest operas

30

Still

- experience of african americans in music
- racially mixed family
- first composition performed by a major symphony & first opera published
- Afro-American symphony Symphony => culture through music

31

Barber

- neoromanticism => new interpretation of romantic (emotions)
- diverse tonality, chromaticism, songlike, expressive
- Adagio for Strings

32

minimalism

repetitive (almost hypnotic) music based on western ideas but affected by non-western techniques

33

Riley

- pioneer of minimalistic music in 1960s
- incorporated elements of indian and jazz in compositions
- keyboard study no.1

34

Glass

- studied indian tala (rhythmic measure)
- composed music with tension b/w melody & rhythm in indian rather than western tradition
- Koyaanisgatsi

35

Reich

- studied in Ghana w/ Ewe tribe
- compositions influenced by african drumming o contrast with electronic music of the time
- clapping music, drumming

36

Adams

- used elements from north/south american music
- used texts from gospels, apocrypha, modern latin american poetry
- the cave, short ride in a fast machine

37

Ellen Taafee Zwilich

- 1st woman to win Pulitzer Prize in music
- composer => widely performed & recorded music
- Concerto Grosso 1985 --> chosen to write piece for the ceebration of 300th anniversary of Handel's birth
- Symphony no.1

38

diagetic music

music that comes from within an object in film i.e. radio/tv

39

nondiagetic music

music heard by the audience (score)

40

film score

music that aides the movie and adds something to allow the audience to feel certain emotions/connect with film

41

theremin

earliest (~1920s) electronic musical instrument
- invented by Russian physicist

42

classic film score

orchestral
- John Williams

43

Williams

- romantic sound to popular favor
- symphony orchestra scores
- Indiana jones, harry potter, jaws

44

mainstream

main body of work of a given period

45

polymeter

use of more than one meter at a time

46

octave displacement

melodic concept involving the selection of pitches from various, sometimes distant, octaves

47

glissando

expressive slide between pitches

48

polyrhythm

two or more rhythmic patterns performed simultaneously

49

atonality

avoidance of a tonic note and of tonal relationships in music

50

row

series of tones on which serial composition is based

51

experimentalism

exploration of previous unknown aspects of musical sounds

52

quarter tone

interval halfway between half steps

53

polytonality

two or more keys at the same time

54

tone cluster

chord built on seconds

55

musique concrète (concrete music)

music consisting of recorded and electronically altered sounds

56

sample

recorded "natural" sound stored digitally and subject to electronic manipulation

57

modern dance

contemporary dance form, usually performed barefoot with steps/gestures/costumes freely designed for each work

58

symbolism

literary movement sharing the ideals of impressionists

59

musical comedy

musical show combining the entertainment of vaudeville with the integrated plot characteristic of operettas

60

ensemble finale

final scene of a music show, or of an act within the show, in which several soloists simultaneously express their individual points of view in different words and music

61

concept musical

musical show presenting ideas subject to the audience's interpretation and leaving situations unresolved

62

sound track

all of the dialogue, sound effects, and music of a film

63

temp

- temporary film score, composed of existing music
- prepared to demonstrate the typeof music desired to a film's composer

64

jazz

- popular style of music in early 20th century inspired by african-american culture
- different styles generally share dance beat, syncopated rhythm, improvisation

65

syncopation

occurrence of accents on weak beats or between beats

66

rag

piece in a ragtime

67

ragtime

popular piano style in which syncopated melody in right hand is accompanied by a regular dupe pattern in the bass

68

strain

melodic section of a march or rag

69

blues

- originated as kind of song and evolved to jazz
- classical form is strophic, twelve bars to each verse

70

blues notes

flexible tones chosen subjectively from between the half steps of tonal scales

71

scat

improvised singing on neutral/nonsense syllables

72

boogie-woogie

piano style derived from the formal and harmonic structure of blues with bright mood and fast tempo

73

combo

small jazz ensemble

74

New Orleans jazz

music performed by a small combo whose soloists take turns improvising on a given tune

75

Dixieland

white musicians version of New Orleans jazz

76

sweet jazz

high arranged style with little room for improvisation

77

symphonic jazz

concert music with the sounds of jazz but no improvisation

78

swing

highly improvisatory style of big band music also referred to as big band jazz

79

bebop

complex, highly improvised style of jazz

80

cool jazz

mild style, performed by bands of moderate size, often including instruments not typically associated with jazz

81

free jazz

style in which musicians improvise independently, sometimes producing a random effect

82

third stream

combination of jazz and concert music

83

jazz-rock, fusion, jazz-rock-fusion

melds rock rhythms and electronic instruments with collective improvisation, extreme ranges of volume, and rapid shifts in meter/tempo/mood that are not characteristic of rock