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Flashcards in Music 103 - Test 4/Final Deck (84)
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post-romanticism

- acceptance to Wagner's ideas
- looked to music of earlier times
- styles bridged 19th & 20th centuries
- primitivism, expressionism, Impressionism

1

impressionism

- anti-german romanticism movement in France
- realistic effects through suggestion and impression
- went against all german ideals

2

primitivism

- second half of 20th century
- exoticism, non-western world
- unsophistication /simplicity --> works of art
- strong rhythms, dissonant combinations, narrow melodies, programmatic
- Paul Gaugin - The Day of the God

3

Strauss

- master of orchestration
- tonal harmony with extensive chromaticism, modulations, unresolved dissonances, frequently shifting rhythmic patterns
- orchestral works, tone poems, opera

4

Debussy

- effect --> more important than cause
- obscure tonality, unconventional approach, unusual instrument use, mod/expression supersede form
- wrote for piano
- whole tones, pentatonic
- influenced by travels

5

Gamelan

Indonesian orchestral band/rhythm

6

Stravinsky

- Russian, left at age 28
- composed music for ballets
- firebird, petrushka, le sacre du printemps

7

expressionism

- rise of the industrial revolution
- depicted cold/impersonal life
- interest in subconscious
- dark and abnormal --> highly emotional
- painting --> Van Gogh (starry night)
- literature --> strindberg

8

Schoenberg

- influenced by Brahms, Strauss, Wagner, Freud (psych)
- wrote atonal but preferred the term pan-tonality

9

twelve tone technique

- use all twelve tones
- glides from note to note
- emancipation of dissonance

10

cubism

- design with geometric planes and muted tones
- unrealistic but expressive

11

Ives

- experimentalism
- quarter tones, polytonality, space & chance
- General Putnam's camp

12

Cowell

- experimentalism
- tone clusters, innovative use of piano (strings)
- The Banshee

13

Babbitt

- 12 tone pieces
- total serialism with mathematical relationships b/w musical elements, concrete music, recordings
- ensembles for synthesizers

14

indeterminate, aleatory, random, chance music

leaving significant components to be determined by performers or chance

15

Cage

- placed things inside piano (prepared piano)
- experimented with silence, audience participation, aleatory music
- The Perilous Night

16

Oliveros

- composer, accordionist, educator
- qualities of sound, avoided meter/pulse, not symmetric
- sound patterns

17

Penderecki

- traditional polish folk music w/ avant-garde concepts
- medieval & early music styles, tone clusters, strong concern for human suffering
- extended range of traditional instruments
- Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima

18

Machover

- synthesize acoustics & electronic sounds, hyperinstruments
- enhanced performance => led to Guitar Hero
- Flora

19

hyperinstruments

electronic enhancement of instruments to extend sound & capability

20

prepared piano

- things placed inside piano to alter sound
- didn't know what sounds would be produced (chance sound)

21

les six

- Auric, Durey, Honegger, Milhaud, Poulenc, Tailleferre
- inspired by popular jazz cafe music heard in France
- typical french => wrote for entertainment

22

musicology

study of music

23

ethnomusicology

study of music w/ specific cultures

24

neoclassicism

- music b/w WWI & WWII
- classical, absolute, not programmatic, clear forms, balance, firm harmonies w/ 20th century sound , bitonal & polytonal chords/passages
- revivals of classical period music
- reflected the changes in social/political structure (1920s)

25

Prokofiev

- neoclassicist
- Russian composers were forbidden to use expressive compositions
- story telling/morals => peter and the wolf

26

Hindemith

- functional music (Gebrachsmusik), practical, strong harmonic use
- composed sonatas, solo concertos, music to accompany film/dance
- stir emotions => Trumpet sonata

27

Bartok

- child prodigy/hungarian composer
- Hungarian/other easter european countries folk music
- first ethnomusicologist => peasant music
- narrow melodies, sonorities, complicated arrangements, chords built on fourths, dissonance
- concerto for orchestra

28

Copeland

- studied with Boulanger in Paris
- influence of jazz, folk, tunes, hymns
- appalachian spring, fanfare for common man

29

Gershwin

- bridged gap between art & popular
- strong use of jazz
- rhapsody in blue
- porgy and bess => one of the earliest operas