BISC 102 - Test 2 Flashcards Preview

Sophomore Year > BISC 102 - Test 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in BISC 102 - Test 2 Deck (89):
1

tidal volume

amount of air inhaled or exhaled during a breath at rest

2

vital capacity

total amount of air a person can exhale with taking the deepest breath possible

3

respiration

need oxygen to gain energy and feed cells

4

trachea

windpipe (beneath larynx)

5

pharynx

throat

6

larynx

box-like structure that produces voice

7

vocal chords

elastic bands of tissue that vibrate as air passes to and from the lungs via the glottis

8

bronchi

branches that lead to the lungs (2)

9

bronchioles

finest branches of the lungs

10

alveoli

little sacs of air at the end of the bronchioles where gas exchange occurs

11

asthma

narrowing of bronchi where air can get in but cannot get out
- wheezing, short of breath, coughing
- no real cure > just treat symptoms

12

smoking

irritates cell lining of bronchi/trachea and inhibits ability to remove foreign substances from airways

13

heart

central pump of circulatory system made of four chambers

14

vascular system

tubes/blood vessels connected to heart

15

blood

circulating fluids of circulatory system

16

blood - plasma

- primarily water
- proteins (antibodies), clotting factors, salts, gases, nutrients, waste, hormones
- exchanges water and dissolved substances with interstitial fluid

17

blood - cells/cell fragments

- primarily red blood cells
- platelets, white blood cells

18

blood pressure

force blood exerts against the walls of blood vessels
- main force driving blood from heart to capillary beds

19

normal blood pressure

below 120 systolic, below 80 diastolic

20

high blood pressure

persistent systolic blood pressure higher than 140 and/or diastolic blood pressure higher than 90

21

atherosclerosis

chronic cardiovascular disease
- build up of plaque of arteries

22

pulse

stretching of arteries caused by the pressure of blood forced into arteries during systole

23

arteries

carry blood away from heart, oxygen rich
- thick layer of smooth can withstand high pressure
> small artery = arteriole
- arteries blocked, anything below dies

24

veins

brings blood toward heart, oxygen poor
- how blood returns to heart
> small vein = venule
- one way valves and thinner smooth muscle
- skeletal muscle contractions help move blood back to the heart

25

capillaries

smallest blood vessels, allow exchange between bloodstream and tissue cells
- big as a red blood cell

26

interstitial fluid

liquid that bathes body cells and helps exchange materials with tissue cells

27

pulmonary circuit

carries blood between heart and lungs

28

systemic circuit

carries blood between heart and rest of the body systems

29

red blood cells

- most numerous type of blood cell
- erythrocytes
- transport oxygen
- carbohydrates on surface determine blood type
- oxygen carried on hemoglobin on RBC

30

hemoglobin

- protein
- transports oxygen
- contains iron
- iron shortage = reduction of synthesis of hemoglobin = blood cells carry less oxygen

31

anemia

common cause is iron deficiency, low RBC count or low hemoglobin levels

32

platelets

- pieces of tissue
- thrombocytes
- help in blood clotting (mesh net created to stop bleeding)

33

agglutination

reaction when cells clump together

34

white blood cells

fight infection and prevent cancer cells from growing
- leukocytes

35

endothelium

innermost lining of the heart, one-cell thick layer of simple squamous epithelium

36

blood route to lungs

from body > venae cavae > R-atrium & R-ventricle > lungs

37

blood route from lungs

from lungs > L-atrium & L-ventricle > aorta > to body

38

murmurs

- extra heart sounds
- can be due to narrowing or leaky valves

39

diastole

relaxation phase
- muscle relaxes = blood flows on both sides

40

systole

contraction phase

41

SA node (pacemaker)

gives signal for atriums to contract
- specialized muscle tissue in right atrium wall
- affects both sides of heart
-

42

AV node

affects ventricles same way SA node affects atriums

43

antigen

a molecule that can trigger an immune response

44

macrophages

engulf pathogens and promote fever

45

natural killer cells

destroy non-normal body cells

46

basophils

provoke inflammation

47

complement proteins

poke holes in cell membranes

48

histamines

chemical released by WBCs to make capillaries leaky around injury site so WBC in bloodstream can assist at site too

49

non-specific/innate

physical barriers and chemical agents
- born with these defenses to protect our body

50

specific/adaptive

- acquired after infection
- most sophisticated response of immune system
- body learns from infection

51

B cells

- develop in bone marrow

52

T cells

- become specialized in thymus to respond to pathogens that have already entered body cells

53

cell-mediated immunity

- cytotoxic t-cells
- actively kill other cells
- release chemical to make pores and blows up non-normal cells

54

humoral immunity

- clonal selection of b-cells
- make antibodies > mess up but do not kill
- produce memory cells to remember invaders

55

primary immune response

- takes several days to produce
- memory cells made that last decades in lymph nodes

56

secondary immune response

- produced when same antigen encountered again
- initiated faster due to memory cells

57

vaccinations

- person given wimpy strain/part of virus (harmless)
- body builds memory cells against full blown virus
- generate increased response when you d get the real thing

58

lymphatic system

collects fluid that leaks from blood vessels, removes bacteria/debris and cancer cells, returns liquid to blood
- all over the body, mostly WBCs

59

clonal selection

activated B-cell divides to generate army of memory and plasma cells (cloning b-cells)

60

clonal deletion

lymphocytes recognize body's own cells and molecules that are weeded out by apoptosis

61

apoptosis

programmed cell death

62

antibodies

- Y-shaped proteins
- recognize specific antigens
- found in blood plasma
- attach to specific antigen and help counter effects
- can have antibodies without memory cells
- i.e. breast milk, gamma globulin

63

region

determine specific target antigen to which antibody binds

64

passive immunity

- acquired by receiving pre-made antibodies
- i.e. mother's milk (newborns), gamma globulin (adults)

65

active immunity

immunity that is created through experience with viruses over time

66

allergies

overblown attack against enemy that is not a real enemy
- i.e. dog attacking squirrel

67

allergens

antigens that cause allergies

68

anaphylactic shock

rapid, widespread reaction where mast cells release histamines throughout body (potentially life-threatening)

69

autoimmune disease

- body turns against own molecules
- i.e. lupus

70

immunodeficiency disease

- immune system is deficient, infections recur
- inborn or arise fro disease
- i.e. HIV, AIDS, SCID

71

homeostasis

keeping conditions the same in the body
- depends on negative feedback (results of a process inhibit that process)

72

thermoregulation

maintain internal body temperature within defined limits

73

endotherm

regulates body temp internally
- i.e. mammals/birds

74

ectotherm

lacks internal regulating mechanism
- regulates by moving to areas of hot/cold
- i.e. fish, amphibians, reptiles

75

hormone

biochemical that travels in the bloodstream and alters the metabolism of one or more cells
- binds to target cells with correct receptor proteins

76

water-soluble

- change within cells without entering cell
- fast-acting
- already have protein

77

lipid-soluble

- slower, steroid hormone
- protein needs to be made
- enters cell

78

pancreas

- regulates insulin and glucagon
- levels high > release insulin into blood
- levels low . release glucagon into blood
- negative feedback

79

type I diabetes

- insulin dependent
- pancreas does not produce insulin
- immune system destroyed insulin-producing beta cells

80

type II diabetes

- non-insulin dependent
- body cells don't respond to insulin

81

gestational diabetes

- pregnancy diabetes
- can hint/lead to type II diabetes but nothing proven
- usually happens with multiple birth pregnancy

82

calcium homeostasis

- level rises > release calcitonin that deposits to bones and tells kidneys to not take up calcium
- level falls > release Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and tells bones to release calcium and kidneys to take up calcium

83

hypothalamus

links nervous and endocrine systems by controlling pituitary secretions

84

pituitary

- anterior > produces and releases hormones
- posterior > stores and releases hormones made in hypothalamus (non-producing)

85

antidiurectic hormone (ADH)

stimulates kidney cells to return water to the bloodstream
- water held back, inhibits urine
- produced in hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitary, sent to kidneys

86

adrenal medulla

- raise blood pressure/ heart rate, constrict blood vessels, slow digestion, increase metabolic rate
- works quickly, but are short term stress hormones
- i.e. epinephine, norepinephrine

87

adrenal cortex

- long-term stress response hormones
- slower

88

mineral-corticords

- maintain blood volume and salt balance

89

glucocorticoids

- increase glucose levels in blood/brain
- essential in prolonged stress response
- indirectly constrict blood vessels > slow blood loss and prevents tissue inflammation after injury