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Flashcards in Classics - Test 4 Deck (41):
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Gilgamesh

- one oldest cycle stories in world
- basis for hero legends across east and west
- mate of Ishtar

1

Enkidu

- creation of Gilgamesh
- first primitive mortal man

2

Humbaba

- guardian of the forest

3

Utnapishtim

- hebrew Noah

4

Perseus

- hero who was born of Danaë and imprisoned with mother by grandfather
- saved by Dictys
- sent by Polydectes to slay medusa
- founded Mycenae

5

Io

- mistress of Zeus whom Hera turned into a cow out of rage and is guarded in Mycenae by Argus (100 eyed monster)

6

Danaïds

- fifty daughters of Danaus who were betrothed to their fifty cousins
- 49 killed their husbands on their wedding night
- sentenced to impossible deed in the Underworld
- Hypermnestra spared

7

Acrisius

- king of Argos
- father of Danaë
- grandfather of Perseus

8

Danaë

- mother of Perseus with Zeus as the father
- impregnated by golden rain

9

Polydectes

- brother of DIctys
- persued Danae
- defeated by Perseus

10

Medusa

- gorgon who was killed by Perseus
- bore Pegasus and Chimera out of neck when beheaded by Perseus

11

Graeae

- sisters of gorgons who helped Perseus find his way to slay Medusa

12

Andromeda

- princess chained to rock because her mother was boastful of her beauty
- saved from sea monster by Perseus

13

catasterism

transformation into constellation

14

Alcmena

- mother of Heracles with Zeus who took the form of her husband

15

Eurystheus

- father of Amphitryon (biological "father" of Heracles)

16

Amphitryon

- biological "father" of Heracles and pure father of Iphicles

17

Megara

- princess of Thebes
- first wife of Heracles
- killed with her children in Heracles rage caused by Hera

18

Nemean Lion

- Lion of Nemea Heracles killed as one of the 12 labors

19

Lernaean Hydra

- multiple-headed serpant that regrew heads after previous ones were severed

20

Ceryneian Deer

- sacred deer of artemis Heracles injured then returned per order of his half sister/brother
- artemis forgave him since he was ordered to do it and not attempting to intentionally kill the sacred animal

21

Erymanthian Boar

- boar Heracles was sent to capture for 12 labors deed

22

Chiron

- centaur whom Heracles wounded with poison arrows

23

Augean Stable

- stables Heracles had to clean for King Augeas as 12 labor deed

24

Stymphalian Birds

- dangerous and annoying birds Heracles lured out of forest and shot with arrows

25

Cretan Bull

- bull Heracles captured and brought back to peloponnese
- later wandered to Isthmus where Theseus killed the bull

26

Diomedes Horses

- flesh eating horses Heracles was sent to capture

27

Admetus

- apollo ordered to serve under him for a year
- treated god well = given a gift of not dying if he could find someone to die in his place

28

Alcestis

- died for husband's eternal life (Admetus)

29

Hippolyta Girdle

- belt of amazonian Heracles was sent to fetch

30

Geryon Cattle

- three-headed monster whose cattle were the tenth task of Heracles

31

Hesperides Apples

- Heracles held up the world for atlas while he took the apples from the golden tree that zeus gave to Hera as a wedding present
- atlas tried to trick him but no such luck

32

metopes

- 12 stone panels that depict the 12 labors of Heracles
- mounted near Olympian temple of Zeus

33

Iole

- daughter of Eurystheus
- originally offered to be prize of archery contest but when Heracles won, the king refused
- Heracles killed Iole's brother Iphitus as a result

34

Omphale

- lover of Heracles for 3 yrs
- liked to watch him prance in negligee and spin thread

35

Cercopes

- two ruffians who robbed a passerby
- treated cruelly when caught by Heracles
- "Black Butt"

36

Deianira

- last wife of Heracles
- poisoned husband with robe and later killed herself

37

Achelous

- river god Heracles wrestled to defend Deianira

38

Nessus

- centaur who ferried travelers across a river
- took liking to Deianira and tried to rape her
- defended by Heracles
- tricked Deianira into taking his blood --> downfall of heracles

39

epic

long narrative poem primarily about heroes mostly written in dactylic hexameter

40

hero cult

ritual(s) used to celebrate the supernatural/exemplary powers of heroes after they have died