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Flashcards in Music 103 - Test 3 Deck (71)
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enlightenment

- 18th century movement by french intellectuals
- advocated reason as universal source of knowledge/truth
- Voltaire & Diderot
- "dampened" playful spirit of rococo

1

fortepiano

- early piano, wide range of dynamic levels
- smaller, less sonorous

2

classical style

- restrained, objective art style
- period of western music from 1750-1825
-form: beauty in order
-melody: duality in themes
-texture: homophonic, melodies generally placed in top line
-dynamics: range increased, changes more subtle & dramatic
-timbre: instrumental dominated, surpassed sacred

3

viennese style

- more specific over classical
-Haydn/Mozart/Beethoven --> drew inspiration from vienna, greek/roman art
- emotionally restrained approach to art (similar to classical)

4

form

overall design of the work of a musical composition

5

symphony

multi-movement orchestral form

6

sonata-allegro

- "first movement form"
- composed of 3 sections --> exposition, development, recapitulation
- formed binary design
- sonata-form

7

coda

optional closing section in the sonata-allegro

8

cadenza

extended passage for the solo instrument
- typical feature of solo concerto --> improvised by soloist

9

rondo

form in which various episodes alternate with the opening material
- fast tempo, merry mood
- ABACA form

10

string quartet

chamber ensemble consisting of two violins, viola, cello
- multi-movement work (typically 4)
- most popular chamber ensemble form

11

minuet and trio

- often third movement of a symphony/sonata/string quartet
- consists of two or more minuets
- second (trio) lighter/more lyrical than first

12

overture

- sets the mood, introduces themes
- introductory orchestral piece

13

comic opera

- light mood
- everyday topics
- smaller cast w/ simple staging
- in vernacular

14

opera buffa

- shorter comic episodes between longer serious scenes --> not entirely funny
- eventually independent comic opera

15

pants/trousers role

woman dressed like a man who has to pretend to be a woman

16

metronome

- instrument used to measure tempo - 1816
- used by Beethoven --> one of the first major composers to use it for markings

17

motive

short melodic phrase that can be developed > Ride of Valkyries (Wagner), Symp. 9 (Beethoven)

18

art song

- concert setting of a poem to music
- strophic, through-composed OR modification of the forms
-- blending of the arts

19

lieder

german art songs

20

requiem

funeral mass for the dead

21

cyclic form

multi-movement form unified by recurrence of same/similar melodic material in 2+ movements

22

Nationalism

- new national consciousness --> styles of music characteristic to country
- connection to heritage

23

The Five

- Borodin
- Balakirev
- Cui
- Mussorgsky
- Rimsky-Korsakov

24

concert overature

- one movement orchestral work --> evolves to independent piece
- classical form
- romeo & juliet overture (Tchaikovsky)

25

program symphonies

- multimovement, longer
- form: programatic concepts
- each movement has its own theme
- Symphonie fantastique - Berlioz

26

symphonic poems

- one movement
- programmatic concepts
- poem with notes instead of words
- major orchestral music innovation

27

orchestral suites

smaller excerpts from larger works pieced together
- ballets (PIT)

28

idee fixe

melodic theme that unifies the movements

29

grand opera

- serious french opera style which emphasized the spectacular
- ballets & stirring chorus
- usually based on historical events