Music 103 - Test 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Music 103 - Test 3 Deck (71):
0

enlightenment

- 18th century movement by french intellectuals
- advocated reason as universal source of knowledge/truth
- Voltaire & Diderot
- "dampened" playful spirit of rococo

1

fortepiano

- early piano, wide range of dynamic levels
- smaller, less sonorous

2

classical style

- restrained, objective art style
- period of western music from 1750-1825
-form: beauty in order
-melody: duality in themes
-texture: homophonic, melodies generally placed in top line
-dynamics: range increased, changes more subtle & dramatic
-timbre: instrumental dominated, surpassed sacred

3

viennese style

- more specific over classical
-Haydn/Mozart/Beethoven --> drew inspiration from vienna, greek/roman art
- emotionally restrained approach to art (similar to classical)

4

form

overall design of the work of a musical composition

5

symphony

multi-movement orchestral form

6

sonata-allegro

- "first movement form"
- composed of 3 sections --> exposition, development, recapitulation
- formed binary design
- sonata-form

7

coda

optional closing section in the sonata-allegro

8

cadenza

extended passage for the solo instrument
- typical feature of solo concerto --> improvised by soloist

9

rondo

form in which various episodes alternate with the opening material
- fast tempo, merry mood
- ABACA form

10

string quartet

chamber ensemble consisting of two violins, viola, cello
- multi-movement work (typically 4)
- most popular chamber ensemble form

11

minuet and trio

- often third movement of a symphony/sonata/string quartet
- consists of two or more minuets
- second (trio) lighter/more lyrical than first

12

overture

- sets the mood, introduces themes
- introductory orchestral piece

13

comic opera

- light mood
- everyday topics
- smaller cast w/ simple staging
- in vernacular

14

opera buffa

- shorter comic episodes between longer serious scenes --> not entirely funny
- eventually independent comic opera

15

pants/trousers role

woman dressed like a man who has to pretend to be a woman

16

metronome

- instrument used to measure tempo - 1816
- used by Beethoven --> one of the first major composers to use it for markings

17

motive

short melodic phrase that can be developed > Ride of Valkyries (Wagner), Symp. 9 (Beethoven)

18

art song

- concert setting of a poem to music
- strophic, through-composed OR modification of the forms
-- blending of the arts

19

lieder

german art songs

20

requiem

funeral mass for the dead

21

cyclic form

multi-movement form unified by recurrence of same/similar melodic material in 2+ movements

22

Nationalism

- new national consciousness --> styles of music characteristic to country
- connection to heritage

23

The Five

- Borodin
- Balakirev
- Cui
- Mussorgsky
- Rimsky-Korsakov

24

concert overature

- one movement orchestral work --> evolves to independent piece
- classical form
- romeo & juliet overture (Tchaikovsky)

25

program symphonies

- multimovement, longer
- form: programatic concepts
- each movement has its own theme
- Symphonie fantastique - Berlioz

26

symphonic poems

- one movement
- programmatic concepts
- poem with notes instead of words
- major orchestral music innovation

27

orchestral suites

smaller excerpts from larger works pieced together
- ballets (PIT)

28

idee fixe

melodic theme that unifies the movements

29

grand opera

- serious french opera style which emphasized the spectacular
- ballets & stirring chorus
- usually based on historical events

30

opera comique

- comic opera --> satire OR romance
- spoken dialogue
- shorter, more modest/realistic
- Carmen: George Bizet

31

leitmotif

weaving melodies through --> unified opera

32

thematic transformations

represented people,events, ideas

33

operetta

- reform from serious/large to light/short/comic
- exotic, humorous, witty, social/political satire, unforgettable melodies
- The Mikado: Sullivan & Gilbert

34

patter songs

tuneful settings, ridiculous multi-syllabic texts (singing tongue twisters)

35

verismo

realism opera --> characters etc.
- Puccini: Madame butterfly

36

character pieces

short piano piece in characteristic mood or style

37

impromptus

improvisatory character pieces

38

ballades

songlike character pieces

39

nocturnes

piece expressing the character of the night

40

preludes

short character piece with no specific form

41

song cycles

set of songs by one composer/generally the same poet connected by subject and melody

42

etude

individual exercises for specific instrument
- Paganini: caprices

43

rubato

"robbing", stealing from/adding to tempo in highly subjective manner --> dramatic changes

44

minstrel shows

white me dressed in stereotypical African american dress/blackface that included song, dance, comic repaartee

45

music drama

- wagner's concept of musical theater
- drama and music were of equal importance

46

strain

melodic section of a march or rag

47

trio

- composition of three voices/instruments

48

break

dramatic, unstable, strongly rhythmic section in a march

49

ensemble finale

final scene of a music show or act within show where several soloists express their POV in different words/music

50

dies irae

Gregorian chant for the dead

51

diminution

rhythmic technique in which note values are halved, doubling the tempo

52

Mozart

- child prodigy
- emotionally dependent
- melodist --> light & lyrical
- piano,organ, harpsichord, violin

53

Haydn

- Austrian
- choirboy & student at Vienna cathedral
- Kappelmeister to Esterhazy
- depths of feeling & creative mind
- The Creation

54

Beethoven

- revolutionary
- works had more romantic feel but he didn't discard classical altogether
- little formal education
- studied briefly w/ Haydn but loved mozart
- sonata-allegro design

55

Mendelssohn

- revered works of Bach
- classicist/romantic
- prolific composer/organist
- chamber music, piano, symphonies

56

Mendelssohn-Hensel

- pianist encouraged to study but not perform
- performed duets w/ brother --> husband supported music but not performance
- composed chamber music, sometimes published under brothers name

57

Brahms

- misplaced classist --> used models from past
- motivic development
- chamber music, piano music, symphonies, choral music
- friends of schumanns

58

Sousa

- composed marches --> director of Marine band
- European march --> melodic sections each reprised

59

Tchaikovsky

- nationalist to cosmopolitan
- influenced by italian opera
- Eugene Oregin

60

Paganini

- virtuosity & showmanship --> gift of devil
- violinist
- wrote for violin, orchestra.mandolin, guitar
- caprices --> series of exercises (showcased technique) for performances

61

Chopin

- brought influence from polish music
- poet of piano
- not happy --> lived in France b/c he had to leave Poland
- long & songlike melodies --> no motivic development

62

Sullivan & Gilbert

- did not get along but collaborated well
- Operetta

63

Wagner

- poet/musician
- influenced by Nietzsche
- stage/llibrettos
- music dramas --> fantastic
- Siegfried

64

Verdi

religious choral music w/ opera/dramatic elements
- Dies Irae

65

Schubert

- classical & romantic styles
- choirboy in Esterhazy
- lived in his own ideal world
- symphonies: Gretchen am Spinnrade

66

Gottschalk

- first american composer-performer in europe
- highly virtuosic
- Le bananier

67

Liszt

- hungarian
- court conductor at Weimar
- piano/orchestral, oratorios, masses, songs, organ music

68

Puccini

- blending of Wagner and Verdi
- increased orchestral role in opera
- Madame Butterfly

69

Berlioz

- idee fixe
- master of orchestration
- symphonie fantastique

70

Foster

- ripped off --> worlds greatest melodist
- family appreciated but did not support music
-Jeanie with light brown hair