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Flashcards in BISC 102 - Test 1 Deck (102):
0

energy

the ability to do work or move matter

1

potential energy

stored energy able to do work

2

kinetic energy

energy being used to do work

3

calorie

amount of energy required to raise 1 gram of water one degree celsius

4

metabolism

sum of the chemical reactions in a cell

5

oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions

transference of energized electrons from one molecule to another

6

oxidation

loss of electron from a molecule, atom, or ion

7

reduction

gain of electrons

8

electron transport chain

each protein accepts an electron from a molecule before it and donates the electron to the next in line

9

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

temporarily stores energy released in chemical reactions

10

enzyme

an organic molecule that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed
- extremely sensitive --> can become denatured

11

active site

region to which substrate binds
- fit like puzzle pieces

12

negative feedback

product of a reaction inhibits the enzyme that controls it's formation
- regulates the metabolic pathway

13

noncompetitive inhibition

product molecule binds to enzyme at location other than the active site and alters the shape of the enzyme so it can no longer bind with the substrate

14

competitive inhibition

reaction product binds to the active site to prevent the binding of enzyme and substrate

15

organic molecules

chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen
- plants and autotrophs can make these organic molecules but humans must obtain them from food

16

hydrocarbons

organic molecules that consist almost entirely of carbon and hydrogen

17

monomers

chains of small molecular subunits

18

polymers

linked monomers
- similar to individually linked cars of a train

19

dehydration synthesis

chemical reaction used to link monomers together
- hydrogen is removed to leave oxygen and hydrogen that bind the monomers together
- found in triglycerides

20

hydrolysis

chemical reaction that breaks the covalent bonds that link monomers together
- enzymes do this in your stomach and intestines to break down proteins and polymers in food

21

carbohydrates

organic molecules that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (1:2:1)

22

monosaccharide

- smallest carbohydrate
- (5-6 carbon atoms)
- i.e. ribose, fructose, glucose

23

disaccharide

two monosaccharides linked by dehydration synthesis
- i.e. glucose + fructose = sucrose
glucose + galactose = lactose

24

polysaccharides

huge molecules consisting of hundreds of monosaccharide molecules
- i.e. cellulose (fiber)
starch (how plants store carbs)
glycogen (sugar stored in liver)

25

lipids

organic compounds that do not dissolve in water
- serve purpose to store energy, cushion body, insulate

26

triglyceride

three long hydrocarbon chains/fatty acids bonded to glycerol

27

glycerol

three carbon molecule that forms triglyceride backbone

28

carboxyl group

Carbon atom double-bonded to one oxygen and single-bonded to another oxygen carrying a hydrogen atom
- each fatty acid has a carboxyl group

29

saturated fat

contains all the hydrogens it possibly can
- single bonds connect carbons
- each carbon has two hydrogens
- i.e. bacon fat, butter

30

unsaturated fat

at least one double bond between carbon atoms
- double bonds cause kinks
- has oily consistency at room temp.
- i.e. olive oil

31

trans-fats

unsaturated fats whose fatty acid tails are straight not kinked
- common in fried and fast food

32

sterols

lipids that have four interconnected rings
- i.e. cortisone, vitamin d

33

cholesterol

base steroid from where body produces steroids
- i.e. hormones

34

protein

chain of monomers called amino acids

35

amino group

a nitrogen atom single-bonded to two hydrogen atoms

36

R group

distinguish amino acids from one another
- diverse chemical structures

37

peptide bond

- forms by dehydration synthesis
- covalent bond that links each amino acid to its neighbor
> dipeptide - two linked amino acids
> tripeptide - three linked amino acids

38

polypeptides

long chains of amino acids
- called protein once it's folded into functional shape
- proteins may consist of one or more polypeptide chains

39

essential amino acids

- animal products are complete and contain all essential amino acids
- plant proteins are incomplete and are deficient in one or more amino acids
- humans are deficient in 8 amino acids

40

primary conformation of protein

- amino acid sequence
- determines all subsequent structural levels

41

secondary conformation of protein

- substructure with a defined shape
- chain of amino acid folded in coils, sheets, and loops
- each protein can have multiple areas of secondary structure

42

tertiary conformation of proteins

- overall shape of polypeptide
- interactions between r group and water
- water molecules surround each polypeptide
- covalent bonds between sulfur atoms in some r groups further stabilize structure

43

quaternary conformation of protein

- shape arises from interactions of multiple polypeptide subunits of same protein
- protein made of two polypeptides
- hemoglobin made of four polypeptide chains

44

biology

scientific study of life

45

scientific method

general way of using evidence to answer questions and test ideas

observations > question > hypothesis > prediction > test
^------proven/falsified------^

46

hypothesis

tentative answer to a question, testable answer
- can be verified or falsified

47

theory

explanation for natural phenomenon
group of hypotheses

48

sample size

number of individuals to be studied
- the larger the sample = the more credible the results

49

variable

changeable element of an experiment

50

independent variable

variable manipulated to determine its influence

51

dependent variable

depends on the outcome from the independent variable
- response measured

52

standardized variable

constant in an experiment to see the influence of the independent variable

53

controls

constant that provides basis for comparison between "normal" and "abnormal"

54

placebo

inert substance that resembles treatment given to experimental group

55

statistical significance

the probability the results arose purely by chance

56

digestive system

the organs that ingest food, break it down, absorb small molecules and eliminate waste

57

heterotroph

organism that has to consume food to get carbon and energy

58

autotroph

organism [plant, algae] that uses inorganic raw materials and an energy source [sunlight] to build its own organic molecules

59

macronutrients

required in large amounts
i.e. water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins

60

micronutrients

required in small amounts
i.e. vitamins and minerals

61

vitamins

- organic molecules required in diet for good health
- have carbon, mostly function as assistants to enzymes

62

water-soluble vitamins

vitamin C, folic acid

63

fat-soluble

vitamin A, vitamin D

64

minerals

- inorganic substances required in diet
- do not have carbon
i.e. calcium, iron, phosphorus

65

metabolic rate

- rate of energy consumption per day
- basal metabolic rate + add. energy consumption

66

basla metabolic rate

amount of energy to maintain basic body functions
- humans: 1300-1800 kcal per day
- depends on activity level, body size, age, heredity

67

malnutrition

dietary deficiency of 1 or more essential nutrients

68

undernutrition

have access to nutrition but choose not to take in enough nutrients

69

what does food provide

- fuel for cellular work
- building materials to construct needed materials to build our bodies
- animals [including humans] must feed on plants/animals since we don't engage in photosynthesis

70

herbivore

organisms that eat plants

71

ruminant

herbivore with four chambered organ that specializes in digesting grass

72

carnivore

organisms that eat other animals (often those that are herbivores)

73

omnivores

organisms that eat both plants and animals

74

mechanical digestion

breaks food physically into fragments to expose surface area to chemical digestion
i.e. chewing

75

chemical digestion

breakdown of food by digestive enzymes

76

enzymes

catalyst, speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction
- lowers amount of energy for the reaction
- lock and key mechanism
- name often ends in ___ase

77

peristalsis

waves of muscle contractions that moves food through the digestive tract

78

incomplete system

has only one opening for food to enter and exit

79

complete system

has two openings, one for food to enter and one for food to exit

80

mouth

- mechanical [chewing to increase surface area] and chemical digestion
- specialized to break down polysaccharides

81

pharynx

- connects mouth to esophagus & trachea
- in swallowing, reflex tip epiglottis to close windpipe/ingest food

82

esophagus

- connector between mouth and stomach
- brings food to stomach

83

stomach

- digests proteins
- can store food for several hours
- mucus protects stomach lining
- mechanical: churns food w/ muscle contractions
- chemical: mixes food, acidic gastric juices

84

pepsin

- enzyme that breaks down proteins in stomach
- gastric juices discharged when food is present

85

chyme

food & gastric juices moved into the small intestine

86

gastric ulcers

- breach in stomach lining
- erosions in stomach lining caused by bacteria
- enzymes meant to breakdown food start to eat stomach

87

small intestine

- fats and everything else
- last digestions and absorption
- energy gained from food absorption
- highly folded to increase absorption area

88

lipases

fat digesting enzymes

89

pancreatic amylase

starch to sugar

90

proteases

protein digesting enzymes

91

villi

finger-like ripples that increase surface area

92

microvilli

finger-like sensors on the ripples of the small intestine

93

large intestine

- water and salt absorption
- waste removal
- shorter but wider than small intestine

94

colon

most of the large intestine length
- absorbs water, produces waste

95

rectum

last six inches of large intestine

96

anus

regulates opening of rectum

97

salivary glands

- releases salivary amylase to breakdown starches

98

liver

produces bile

99

gallbladder

stores bile

100

pancreas

releases/stores enzymes

101

activation energy

amount of energy required to start a reaction