BISC 102 - Test 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BISC 102 - Test 3 Deck (74):
1

neurons

interconnected cells that communicate via electrical impulses
- gather/process info and take action

2

neuroglia

cells that provide physical support to neurons

3

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord
- takes sensory information and coordinates response

4

peripheral nervous system

carries information from CNS to the rest of the body

5

cell body

rounded/enlarged neuron part that contains nucleus et al

6

dendrites

short branched extensions that transmit information toward cell body

7

axon

conducts nerve impulses away from cell body

8

myelin sheath

composed of neuroglia, wrapped around axon to insulate and speed impulse conduction

9

sensory neuron

brings info from body to CNS

10

interneurons

connect neurons in brain/spine
- gather/process info and tell motor neurons what to do

11

motor neurons

take message from CNS to body cells

12

resting potential

charge difference between inside and outside of neuron not conducting a message

13

action potential

when conducting a message, brief change in membrane potential that spreads like a wave along membrane of nerve fiber

14

neurotransmitter

chemical sign that travels between neurons

15

synapse

junction where tip of the axon of a neuron communicates with dendrites of another

16

synaptic cleft

space between two neurons

17

synaptic terminals

tiny knobs that enlarge at tips to transmit info

18

nerves

bundles of axons encased in connective tissue

19

somatic nervous system

controls voluntary movements in skeletal muscles
- ride a bike

20

autonomic nervous system

controls involuntary smooth and cardiac muscle movement
- heart, organs

21

gray matter

neuron cell bodies and dendrites/synapses by which they communicate with other cells

22

white matter

myelinated axons that transmit throughout CNS

23

reflex

rapid involuntary response to stimulus

24

hindbrain

back of the brain

25

medulla oblongata

continuation of spinal cord that regulates breathing, blood pressure, heart rate (et al)

26

pons

area above medulla that connects forebrain to medulla and white matter/cerebellum

27

cerebellum

refine motor messages and coordinate muscle movements

28

midbrain

narrow region that connects fore and hind brains

29

forebrain

front of the brain

30

thalamus

relay station for sensory information

31

hypothalamus

maintain homeostasis, links endocrine and nervous systems

32

cerebrum

controls quality of personality, intelligence, learning, perception and emotion

33

DNA

phosphate sugar backbone with 4 nitrogenous bases
- adenine-thymine, cytosine-guanine

34

initiation

open up DNA helix for RNA to make copy of the DNA piece

35

elongation

RNA copies from one side of DNA

36

termination

closes DNA, RNA now has copy of the protein it needs

37

transcription

in nucleus > RNA goes between to communicate protein structure

38

translation

in cytoplasm on ribosome > synthesizes proteins

39

RNA

- replacement of thymine with uracil

40

point mutation

one base pair substitution
- only affects one amino acid and impairs protein function
- can be undetectable or fatal
- i.e. sickle cell disease

41

frameshifts

- insertions or deletions
- changes the rest of the coding sequence
- many result in non-functional proteins

42

mutations

- come about from damaged DNA [ultraviolet light], errors in replication, mutagens
- changes but not always harmful
- most contribute to diversity by evolution

43

mutagen

physical and chemical agents that cause mutations

44

viruses

- exhibit some living organism characteristics
- need host cell to reproduce but provide own genetic information
- tricks host cell into making it's proteins

45

HIV

copies RNA to DNA using reverse transcriptase
- transmitted through blood and bodily fluids

46

retrovirus

genetic information stored as RNA
- HIV

47

AZT

drug that interrupts the HIV creation process

48

AIDS

caused by HIV

49

transgenic organisms

insert other genetic material from other organisms
- i.e. cystic fibrosis where a protein is missing, patient inhales proteins and now breathes 'normally'

50

plasmid

small circle of double-strand DNA

51

restriction enzyme

- protein
- cuts double-strand DNA at specific base sequence

52

electrophoresis

separates DNA fragments by size

53

restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)

the process of getting DNA, running it on a gel, visualizing and analyzing the results

54

total genomic DNA

all of the genetic information
- requires a lot of biological information

55

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

used when only a small amount of DNA is available
- uses copy machinery in DNA to produce copies of a sequence

56

profiling

uses most variable part of the genome to detect genetic differences between individuals

57

short tandem repeats (STR)

sequences of four to five nucleotides that are repeating/non-coding regions of DNA

58

CODIS

database linking all states with serial crimes and unsolved/repeat offender cases

59

embryonic stem cells

give life to all cells of the body > entire biological makeup

60

adult stem cells

more differentiated to produce limited subset of cell types
- i.e. replace skin from wear-and-tear

61

DNA probe

single strand sequence of nucleotides complementary to known region of DNA

62

gene therapy

shares similarities with creation of transgenic organisms

63

duplication of cells (why)

- replace cells [death/damage]
- growth

64

sister chromatids

2 duplicated copies of chromosomes that separate in cell division (from 1 cell = 2 identical cells)

65

mitosis

division of somatic cells

66

cancer

- cells divide uncontrollably
- not inherited = predisposition
- checks/balances are not functioning properly
- causes multiple mutations

67

tumor

abnormal mass of tissue

68

benign

- contained
- relatively harmless unless growth pushes in other things causing the to not function correctly

69

malignant

cancerous

70

metastasized

cancer has spread via lymphatic or circulatory system
- caused via metastasis

71

biological therapy

- build immune response to cancer
- form antibodies against cancer
- i.e. some leukemias

72

chemotherapy

uses chemicals to counter cancer

73

radiation

destroys all cells
- hopefully stops cancer cells from growing/multiplying but also kills some healthy cells

74

anti-angiogenesis

process of destroying blood vessels that cancer creates to feed itself
- starve the cancer