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Flashcards in biology chapter 10 Deck (45)
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1

muscoskeletal system

forms the basic internal framework of the vertebrate body

2

flagella

achieve movement by means of the power stroke, a thrusting movement generated by the sliding action of microtubules

3

exoskeleton

is a hard skeleton that covers all muscles and organs of some invertebrates

4

endoskeleton

serves as the framework within all vertebrate organisms. Also provides protection by surrounding delicate vital organs in bone

5

cartilage

is a type of connective tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone.

6

bone

is a specialized type of mineralized connective tissue that has the ability to withstand physical stress

7

compact bone

is dense bone that does not appear to have any cavities when observed with the naked eye

8

spongy bone

is much less dense, and consists of an interconecting lattice of bony spicules (trabeculae); the cavities in between the spicules are filled with yellow and/or red bone marrow

9

yellow marrow

is inactive and infiltrated by adipose tissue

10

red marrow

is involved in blood cell formation

11

osteoblasts

synthesize and secrete the organic constituents of the bone matrix; once they have become surrounded by their matrix, they mature into osteocytes

12

osteoclasts

are large multinucleated cells involved in bone resorption

13

bone formation

occurs by either endochondral ossification or by intramembranous ossification

14

endochondral ossification

existing cartilage is replaced by bone

15

intramembranous ossification

mesenchymal (embryonic, undifferentiaated) connective tissue is tranformed into, and replaced by, bone

16

axial skeleton

is the basic framework of the body, consisting of the skull, vertebral column, and the rib cage

17

appendicular skeleton

which includes the bones of the appendages and the pectoral and pelvic girdles

18

sutures

or immovable joints hold the bones of the skull together

19

movable joints

bones that do move relative to one another

20

ligaments

serve as bone to bone connectors

21

tendons

attach skeletal muscle to bones and bend the skeleton at the movable joints

22

origin

the point of attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone (the proximal end in limb muscles)

23

insertion

the point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that moves (distal end in limb muscles)

24

extension

indicates a straightening of a joint while flexion refers to a bending of a joint

25

skeletal muscle

is responsible for voluntary movements and is innervated by the somatic nervous system. Has striations of light and dark bands, and is therefore also referred to as striated muscle

26

myofibrils

are enveloped by a modified endoplasmic reticulum that stores calcium ions and called the sarcoplasmic reticulum

27

sarcoplasm

the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

28

sarcolemma

cell membrane . Is capable of propagating an action potential, and is connected to a system of transverse tubules (T system) oriented perpendicularly to the myofibrils

29

sacromere

is composed of thin and thick filaments

30

thin filaments

are chains of actin molecules