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Flashcards in biology chapter 10 Deck (45):
1

muscoskeletal system

forms the basic internal framework of the vertebrate body

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flagella

achieve movement by means of the power stroke, a thrusting movement generated by the sliding action of microtubules

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exoskeleton

is a hard skeleton that covers all muscles and organs of some invertebrates

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endoskeleton

serves as the framework within all vertebrate organisms. Also provides protection by surrounding delicate vital organs in bone

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cartilage

is a type of connective tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone.

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bone

is a specialized type of mineralized connective tissue that has the ability to withstand physical stress

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compact bone

is dense bone that does not appear to have any cavities when observed with the naked eye

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spongy bone

is much less dense, and consists of an interconecting lattice of bony spicules (trabeculae); the cavities in between the spicules are filled with yellow and/or red bone marrow

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yellow marrow

is inactive and infiltrated by adipose tissue

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red marrow

is involved in blood cell formation

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osteoblasts

synthesize and secrete the organic constituents of the bone matrix; once they have become surrounded by their matrix, they mature into osteocytes

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osteoclasts

are large multinucleated cells involved in bone resorption

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bone formation

occurs by either endochondral ossification or by intramembranous ossification

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endochondral ossification

existing cartilage is replaced by bone

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intramembranous ossification

mesenchymal (embryonic, undifferentiaated) connective tissue is tranformed into, and replaced by, bone

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axial skeleton

is the basic framework of the body, consisting of the skull, vertebral column, and the rib cage

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appendicular skeleton

which includes the bones of the appendages and the pectoral and pelvic girdles

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sutures

or immovable joints hold the bones of the skull together

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movable joints

bones that do move relative to one another

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ligaments

serve as bone to bone connectors

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tendons

attach skeletal muscle to bones and bend the skeleton at the movable joints

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origin

the point of attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone (the proximal end in limb muscles)

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insertion

the point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that moves (distal end in limb muscles)

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extension

indicates a straightening of a joint while flexion refers to a bending of a joint

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skeletal muscle

is responsible for voluntary movements and is innervated by the somatic nervous system. Has striations of light and dark bands, and is therefore also referred to as striated muscle

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myofibrils

are enveloped by a modified endoplasmic reticulum that stores calcium ions and called the sarcoplasmic reticulum

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sarcoplasm

the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

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sarcolemma

cell membrane . Is capable of propagating an action potential, and is connected to a system of transverse tubules (T system) oriented perpendicularly to the myofibrils

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sacromere

is composed of thin and thick filaments

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thin filaments

are chains of actin molecules

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thick filaments

are composed of organized bundles of myosin molecules

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Z line

define the boundaries of a single sacromere and anchor the thin filaments

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M line

runs down the center of the sarcomere

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I band

is the region containing thin filaments only

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H zone

is the region containing thick filaments only

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A band

spans the entire length of the thick filaments and any overlapping portions of the thin filaments

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neuromuscular junction

the link between the nerve terminal (synaptic bouton) and the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber

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simple twitch

is the response of a single muscle fiber to a brief stimulus at or above the threshold stimulus, and consists of a latent period, a contraction period, and a relaxation period

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latent period

is the time between stimulation and the onset of contraction

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relaxation period

in which the muscle is unresponsive to a stimulus

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tonus

is a state of partial contraction. Muscles are never completely relaxed and maintain a partially contracted state at all times

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smooth muscle

is responsible for involuntary actions and is innervated by the autonomic nervous system. Is found in the digestive tract, bladder, uterus, and blood vessel walls, among other places

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cardiac muscle fibers

possess characteristics of both skeletal and smooth muscle fibers.

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creatine phosphate

energy can be temporarily stored in a high energy compound called creatine phosphate

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myoglobin

is a hemoglobin-like protein found in muscle tissue. Has a high oxygen affinity and maintains the oxygen supply in muscles by binding oxygen tightly