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Flashcards in chemistry chapter 3 Deck (22):
1

molecules

atoms of many elements that can combine to form this

2

chemical bonds

strong attractive forces that hold together atoms in most molecules

3

octet rule

which states that an atom tends to bond with other atoms until it has eight electrons in its outermost shell, thereby forming a stable electron configuration similar to that of the group VIII (noble gas) elements

4

ionic bonding

an electron(s) from an atom with a smaller ionization energy is transferred to an atom with a greater electron affinity, and the resulting ions are held together by electrostatic forces

5

covalent bonding

an electron pair is shared between two atoms

6

polar covalent bonds

the bond is partially covalent and partially ionic

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cation

the atom that loses electrons becomes a positively charged ion

8

anion

the atom that gains electrons becomes a negatively charged ion

9

ionic compounds

have high melting and boiling points due to the strong electrostatic forces between the ions, can conduct electricity in the liquid and aqueous states

10

bond order

the number of shared electron pairs between two atoms

11

bond length

is the average distance between the two nuclei of the atoms involved in the bond

12

bond energy

is the energy required to separate two bonded atoms

13

bonding electrons

the shared valence electrons of a covalent bond

14

nonbonding electrons

the valence electrons not involved in the covalent bond

15

lone electron pairs

the unshared electron pairs

16

Lewis structure

is used to represent the bonding and nonbonding electrons in a molecule, facilitating chemical "bookkeeping"

17

polar covalent bond

occurs between atoms with small differences in electronegativity, generally in the range of 0.4 to 1.7 Pauling units

18

nonpolar covalent bond

occurs between atoms that have the same electronegativities. The bonding pair is shared equally, with no separation of charge across the bond

19

coordinate covalent bond

the shared electron pair comes from the lone pair of one of the atoms in the molecule

20

lewis acid

is a compound that can accept an electron pair to form a covalent bond

21

lewis base

is a compound that can donate an electron pair to form a covalent bond

22

hydrogen bonding

is a specific, unusually strong form of dipole-dipole interaction, which may be either intra- or intermolecular