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Flashcards in biology chapter 13 Deck (25):
1

reflexes

are simple, automatic responses to simple stimuli

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simple reflex

is controlled at the spinal cord

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complex reflex patterns

involve neural integration at a higher level-- the brainstem or even the cerebrum

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fixed action patterns

are complex, coordinated, innate behavioral responses to specific patterns of stimulation in the environment

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releaser

the stimulus that elicits the behavior

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circadian rhythms

daily cycles of behavior

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habituation

is one of the simplest learning patterns, involving the suppression of the normal startle responses to stimuli

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classical conditioning (pavlovian)

involves the association of a normally autonomic or visceral response with an environmental stimulus

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pseudoconditioning

is a phenomenon which can be confused with true classical conditioning. The so called "neutral" stimulus is able to elicit the response even before conditioning, and hence is not really a neutral stimulus

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positive reinforcement

includes providing food, light, or electrical stimulation of the animal's brain "pleasure centers"

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negative reinforcement

involves stimulating the brain's pleasure centers. Links a certain behavior to the ceasation of an aversive stimulus

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punishment

involves conditioning an organism so that it will stop exhibiting a given behavior pattern. After, the organism is less likely to repeat the behavioral response

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extinction

is the gradual elimination of conditioned responses in the absence of reinforcement, ie the "unlearning" of the response pattern

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stimulus generalization

is the ability of a conditioned organism to respond to stimuli which are similar, but not identical, to the original conditioned stimulus

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stimulus discrimination

involves the ability of the learning organism to differentially respond to slightly different stimuli

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stimulus generalization gradient

is established after the organism has been conditioned, whereby stimuli further and further away from the original conditioned stimulus elicit responses with decreasing magnitude

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imprinting

is a process in which environmental patterns or objects presented to a developing organism during a brief "critical period" in early life, become accepted permanently as an element of their behavioral environment, ie "stamped in" and included in an animal's behavioral response

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critical periods

are specific time periods during an animal's early development when it is physiologically able to develop specific behavioral patterns

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intraspecific interactions

are interactions that occur as a means of communication between members of a species

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reproductive displays

are specific behaviors found in all animals including humans. Many animals have evolved a variety of complex actions that function as signals in preparation for mating

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agonistic displays

are such things as dog's display of appeasement when it wags its tail or the dog's antagonistic behavior when it directs its face straight and raises its body

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territoriality

serves the adaptive function of distributing members of the species so that the environmental resources are not depleted in a small region; furthermore, intraspecific competition is reduced

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pheromones

animals secrete this substance that influence the behavior of other members of the same species

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releaser pheromones

trigger a reversible behavioral change in the recipient. For example, sex attractant pheromones, but also, releaser pheromones are secreted as alarm and toxic defensive substances

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primer pheromones

produce long term behavioral and physiological alterations in recipient animals. They regulate role determination and reproductive capabilities