ochem chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ochem chapter 2 Deck (17):
1

iosmers

are chemical compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in structure- that is, in their atomic connectivity, or the spatial orientation of their atoms

2

structural isomers

are compounds that share only their molecular formula. Because their connectivities may be completely different, they often have different chemical and physical properties (such as melting point, boiling point, solubility, etc)

3

stereoisomers

are compounds that differ from each other only in the way that their atoms are oriented in space.

4

geometric isomers

are compounds that differ in the position of substituents attached to a double bond

5

cis

if two substituents are on the same side of the double bond

6

trans

if they are on opposite sides of the double bond

7

Z

if the two highest priority substituents on each carbon lie on the same side of the double bond

8

E

if they are on opposite sides

9

chiral

an object that is not superimposible upon its mirror image

10

achiral

are mirror images that can be superimposed

11

enantiomers

chiral objects that are non-superimposable mirror imaages

12

configuration

is the spatial arrangement of the atoms or groups of a stereoisomer

13

relative configuration

of a chiral molecule is its configuration in relation to another chrial molecule

14

absolute configuration

of a chiral molecule describes the spatial arrangement of these atoms or groups

15

racemic mixture

is a mixture of equal concentrations of both the (+) or (-) enantiomers. The rotations cancel each other and no optical activity is observed

16

polarizer

allows light waves oscillating only in a particular direction to pass, producing plane-polarized light

17

conformational isomers

are compounds that differ only by rotation about one or more single bonds