chemistry chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

PCAT > chemistry chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chemistry chapter 2 Deck (25):
1

periodic law

which states that the chemical properties of the elements are dependent, in a systematic way, upon their atomic numbers

2

periods

rows. 7 of them, representing the principal quantum numbers n=1 to n=7, and each period is filled sequentially

3

groups

columns. Represent elements that have the same electronic configuration in their valence, or outermost shell, and share similar chemical properties

4

valence electrons

electrons in the outermost shell. Involved in chemical bonding and determine the chemical reactivity and properties of the element

5

representative elements

which have either s or p sublevels as their outermost orbitals. A elements

6

nonrepresentative elements

including transition elements, which have partially filled d sublevels, and the lanthanide and actinide series, which have partly filled f sublevels. B elements

7

atomic radius

of an element is equal to one-half the distance between the centers of two atoms of that element that are just touching each other

8

ionization energy (IE)

is the energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion

9

first ionization energy

is the energy required to remove one valenece electron from the parent atom

10

second ioniztion energy

is the energy needed to remove a second valence electron from the univalent ion to form the divalent ion

11

electron affinity

is the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom, and it represents the ease with which the atom can accept an electron

12

group IIA elements

alkaline earths, have low electron affinity values. Are relatively stable because their s subshell is filled

13

group VII elements

halogens, have high electron affinities because the addition of a electron to the atom results in a completely filled shell, which represents a stable electron configuration

14

group VIII elements

noble gases, have electron affinities on the order of zero, since they already possess a stable octet and cannot readily accept an electron

15

electronegativity

is a measure of the attraction an atom has for electrons in a chemical bond

16

metals

are shiny solids at room temperature, and generally have high melting points and densities

17

malleability

the ability of metal to be hammered into shapes

18

ductility

ability to be drawn into wires

19

nonmetals

are generally brittle in the solid state and show little or no metallic luster. They have high ionization energies and electronegativities, and are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity

20

metalloids

their densities, boiling points, and melting points fluctuate widely. Elements classified as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium

21

alkali metals

are the elements of group IA. They posses most of the physical properties common to metals, yet their densities are lower than those of other metals. Have only one loosely bound electron in their outermost shell, giving them the largest atomic radii of all the elements in their respective periods

22

alkaline earths

are the elements of group IIA, which also possess many characteristically metallic properties. Have low electronegativities and positive electron affinities

23

halogens

group VIIA, are highly reactive nonmetals with seven valence electrons (one short of the favored octet configuration. The electronegativities are very high, and they are particularly reactive towards alkali metals and alkaline earths, which "want" to donate electrons to the halogens to form stable ionic crystals

24

noble gases

are found in group VIII. Are fairly nonreactive because they have a complete valence shell, which is an energetically favored arrangement. Gives them little to no tendency to gain or lose electrons, high ionization energies, and no real electronegativites. they possess low boiling points and are all gases at room temperature

25

transition elements

groups IB to VIIIB, are all considered metals. Are very hard and have high melting oints and boiling points