biology chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

PCAT > biology chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in biology chapter 1 Deck (118)
Loading flashcards...
1

metabolism

the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body

2

catabolic reactions

break down large chemicals and release energy

3

anabolic reactions

which build up large chemicals and require energy

4

ingestion

the acquisition of food and other raw materials

5

digestion

the process of converting food into a usable soluble form so that it can pass through membranes in the digestive tract and enter the body

6

absorption

the passage of nutrient molecules through the living of the digestive tract into the body proper

7

transport

the circulation of essential compounds required to nourish the tissues, and the removal of waste products from the tissue

8

assimilation

the building up of new tissues from digested food materials

9

respiration

the consumption of oxygen and glucose by the body. Cells use oxygen to convert glucose to ATP, a ready source of energy for cellular activities

10

excretion

the removal of waste products (such as carbon dioxide, water, and urea) produced during metabolic processes like respiration and assimilation

11

synthesis

the creation of complex molecules from simple ones (anabolism)

12

regulation

the control of physiological activies

13

homeostasis

the body's metabolism functions to maintain its internal environment in a changing external environment

14

irritability

is the ability to respond to a stimulus and is part of regulation

15

growth

an increase in size due to synthesis of new materials

16

photosynthesis

the process by which plants convert CO2 and H2O into carbohydrates. Sunlight is harnessed by chlorophyll to drive this reaction

17

reproduction

the generation of additional individuals of a species

18

protoplasm

the substance of life

19

atoms

are joined by chemical bonds to form compounds

20

inorganic compounds

are compounds that do not contain the element carbon including salts and HCl

21

organic compounds

are made by living systems and contain carbon. They include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

22

carbohydrates

are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio, respectively

23

monosaccharide

like glucose and fructose are single sugar subunits

24

disaccharide

like maltose and sucrose are composed of two monosaccharide subunits joined by dehydration synthesis which involves loss of a water molecule

25

polysaccharide

are polymers or chaings of repeating monosaccharide subunits. Examples are glycogen and starch

26

hydrolysis

by adding water lage polymers can be broken down into smaller subunits

27

triglyceride

consists of 3 ftty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol backbone

28

lipids

are the chief means of food storage in animals

29

phospholipids

contain glycerol, two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and nitrogen containing alcohol and cephalin

30

waxes

are esters of fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols. They are found as protective coatings on skin, fur, leaves of higher plants, and on the exoskeleton of many insects