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Flashcards in biology chapter 14 Deck (74)
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1

ecology

is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

2

abiotic

physical environment which includes climate, temperature, availability of ight and water and the local topology

3

biotic

all living things which directly or indirectly influence the life of the organism including the relationships that exist between organisms

4

organism

is the individual unit of an ecological system, but the organism itself is composed of smaller units.

5

population

is a group of organisms of the same species living together in a given location

6

species

is any group of similar organisms that are capable of reproducing

7

community

consists of populations of different plants and animal species interacting with each other in a given environment

8

ecosystem

encompasses the interaction between living biotic communities and the non living environment

9

biosphere

includes all portions of the planet which support life-- the atmosphere, the lithosphere (rock and soil surface) and the hydrosphere (the oceans)

10

water

is the major component of the internal environment of all living things. May be readily available or the organism may possess adaptations for storage and conservation of water

11

temperature

must be maintained at an optimal level

12

sunlight

is the ultimate source of energy for all organisms

13

photic zone

the top layer through which light can penetrate & where all aquatic photosynthetic activity takes place

14

aphotic zone

only animal life and other life that does not require photosynthesis exist

15

substratum

determines the nature of plant and animal life in the soil. Soil is affected by acidity, texture, minerals, and humus

17

texture

determine the water holding capacity of the soil

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loams

contain high percentages of each type of soil

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minerals

affect the type of vegetation that can be supported

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humus quantity

determined by the amount of decaying plant and animal life in the soil

21

niche

defines the functional role of an organism in its ecosystem

22

habitat

is the physical place where an organism lives

23

extinction

one species may be competitively superior to the other and drive the second

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autotrophs

are organisms that manufacture their own food

25

heterotrophs

cannot synthesize their own food and must depend upon autotrophs or other heterotrophs in the ecosystem to obtain food and energy

26

herbivores

are animals that consume only plants or plant foods

27

symbiotic bacteria

capable of digesting cellulose inhabit the digestive tracts of herbivores and allow the breakdown and utilization of cellulose

28

carnivores

are animals which only eat other animals. Possess pointed teeth and fang like canine teeth for tearing flesh. They have shorter digestive tracts due to the easier digestibility of animal food

29

omnivores

are animals which eat both plants and animals

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integrated system

which are dependent upon one another for survival

32

obligatory

one or both organisms cannot survive without the other