Blocks 47-bonus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blocks 47-bonus Deck (228):

What are the main distinguishing characteristics of fragile X syndrome?

Fragile X syndrome will have macroorchidism, hyperflexible joints, and a long face.


What is the equation for NNT?



What is the sensory distribution of the musculocutaneous nerve in the forearm?

The musculocutaneous nerve innervates the lateral forearm with sensory input.


What is the role of snRNPs?

snRNPs help to remove introns


What condition is associated with smaller than normal changes in ventricular volume at the same level of ventricular pressure?

Restrictive cardiomyopathy is associated with smaller than expected changes in ventricular volume at a given pressure.


What is the main way that copper is excreted from the body?

Copper is largely excreted in bile either as ceruloplasmin or as free copper.


What is the equation for RPF?

RPF = PAH clearance = ([urine PAH] * urine flow rate)/[plasma PAH]


What site of ulceration is least likely to be malignant in someone with H. pylori infection?

Duodenal ulcers are the most common in H. pylori infection and are also the least likely to be malignant.


What partial agonist of mu can induce opioid withdrawal symptoms in an addict?

Pentazocine can induce withdrawal symptoms in those addicted to morphine. It is a partial agonist/antagonist at the mu receptor


How do fibrates work?

Fibrates block 7alpha-hydroxylase to prevent the conversion of cholesterol into bile salts. This increases the amount of cholesterol in the bile.


What is a serious side effect of lamotrigine?

Lamotrigine can cause a life-threatening skin rash in children and adults.


What effect will cholestyramine have on the production of cholesterol?

Cholestyramine will increase the production of cholesterol because it increases the amount of bile eliminated in the stool. The liver then has to synthesize new cholesterol to replace it.


What is a dsDNA virus that can have intracytoplasmic inclusions

HSV-1 can have intracytoplasmic inclusions and is a dsDNA virus


How are most carcinogens converted to their dangerous form?

Microsomal monooxygenase (Cyp 450) usually converts pro-carcinogens to more toxic metabolites


What is the equation for clearance?

CL = ([Urine] * urine flow rate)/[plasma]


What enzyme is deficient in someone who has abnormal stores of glycogen, hepatomegaly, and cardiomegaly?

Pompe's disease is due to a deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase.


If PT doesn't correct with vitamin K then there is probably a deficiency in ____________.

Factor VII deficiency can lead to a prolonged PT that will not correct with the administration of vitamin K


What are the two most specific findings for Grave's disease clinically?

Lower leg skin thickening and induration (myxedema) and exophthalmos are the two most specific findings in Grave's disease.


Degeneration of which region of the brain will be seen early in alzheimers.

Hippocampal degeneration is present early in the course of alzheimers disease.


If someone has a cyst that lies between their umbilicus and small intestine where did it come from?

A vitelline cyst is due to improper degeneration of the vitelline duct during development. It can also lead to a Meckel's diverticulum.


Where does nitroglycerin act? What does this lead to?

Nitroglycerin acts on the large veins leading to a decreased pre-load.


Which RNA polymerase is responsible for the synthesis of rRNA?

RNA POL1 is responsible for the synthesis of rRNA.


What is the name of a tumor in the liver that has interstitial spaces with blood in between?

Cavernous hemangiomas are the most common benign liver tumors. They look like a big glob of blood vessels with a thick interstitium


Which form of kidney disease would have microscopic spikes?

Membranous glomerulonephropathy has a spike and dome pattern.


How does streptomycin work?

Streptomycin blocks the 30s subunit and prevents the initiation of translation


What are the effects of carotid massage?

Carotid massage will increase the parasympathetic tone and slow conduction through the AV node.


What effects can aspergillus have in those with asthma?

Aspergillus can exacerbate asthma and even lead to bronchiectasis.


What will cause rose-colored spots and diarrhea that progresses from watery to bloody in someone who returned from latin america?

Salmonella typhi causes rose-colored spots and diarrhea that progresses from watery to bloody.


What is the cause of bilateral hilar adenopathy, wt. loss, chronic cough, night sweats, and non-caseating granulomas in an AA male?

Sarcoidosis will cause bilateral hilar adenopathy and non-caseating granulomas.


What is the form of arteritis caused in temporal arteritis?

Temporal arteritis will lead to granulomatous inflammation of the media of arteries


What is an anti-arrhythmic that can cause AV block?

Verapamil is an anti-arrhythmic that can cause AV block.


What will be the result of an increase in BP due to the administration of an alpha-1-agonist?

Alpha-1-agonists (phenylephrine, methoxamine) will cause a decrease in AV nodal conduction velocity due to baroreceptor activation


What is the major cause of pancytopenia without splenomegaly?

Pancytopenia without splenomegaly is almost always caused by aplastic anemia.


What is the amino acid that provides an intrinsic source of NO?

Arginine is the AA that is the intrinsic source of NO.


______ will be elevated in a patient with aplastic anemia?

EPO will be elevated in a patient with aplastic anemia.


What can lead to sudden onset blindness in someone with DM. What will their ophthalmic exam show?

Retinal artery occlusion can lead to sudden blindness in those with DM. It will show a pale retina and a cherry-red macula on fundoscopic exam.


What can present in a bowel biopsy with spindle cells and blood vessel proliferation in someone with HIV?

Kaposi sarcoma can present in the bowel with spindle cells and blood vessel proliferation in a tumor.


How can amitriptyline affect the heart?

TCAs act on cardiac fast sodium channels and can cause arrhythmias and hypotension.


What is a very specific clinical finding for left heart failure?

Orthopnea is a very specific finding for left heart failure.


What are specific findings for right heart failure?

Bilateral edema and hepatomegaly can indicate right heart failure.


What are the effects of anabolic steroids on the skin and RBCs?

Anabolic steroids can lead to an increase in testosterone leading to acne and increased RBC production.


What will lead to an increase in the synthesis of DNA polymerase and the other enzymes of DNA replication?

Retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation allows for the transition from the G1->S phase and DNA replication.


Other than malignant hyperthermia, what is another potential adverse effect of succinylcholine?

Succinylcholine can lead to a massively increased potassium.


What infection possible in a burn victim will respond well to cefepime, but not ceftriaxone?

Pseudomonas infection is susceptible to cefepime, but not to ceftriaxone. Go for the big guns with pseudomonas.


What is a potential complication of a disease that causes silvery lesions on the skin?

Psoriasis can lead to psoriatic arthritis sometimes


What is the next step if you suspect child abuse?

If you suspect child abuse then you should contact child services.


What cells are involved in a delayed (type IV) hypersensitivity?

macrophages, CD4+, CD8+, and NK cells are involved in PPD tests and candida tests


What is the diagnosis in someone with a thin stratum granulosum and a prominent stratum corneum?

Psoriasis will have a thin stratum granulosum and a prominent stratum corneum.


What cancer is associated with V600E BRAF mutations?

melanoma is most strongly associated with this mutation.


What skin infection is best treated with nafcillin?

Nafcillin, oxacillin, and methicillin are all good choices for treating S. Aureus, the most common cause of folliculitis.


How does terbinafine work?

Terbinafine works by inhibiting squalene epoxidase and blocking the synthesis of ergosterol.


What is another disease that can be caused by bartonella henselae in those who are immunocompromised?

Bacillary angiomatosis is red-purple skin lesions that are possible in immunocompromised pts with bartonella henselae.


What vitamin can improve the outcome in measles?

Vitamin A supplementation can help in measles.


What is different about cidofovir as compared with most other basic antivirals?

Cidofovir does not require phosphorylation by the viral kinase to have activity.


What is the difference in late and early stage problems in porphyrin synthesis?

Problems late in porphyrin synthesis will cause photosensitivity, but early problems do not.


What is an enzyme that can be disrupted late in the synthesis of porphyrin?

Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase is a late stage porphyrin synthesis enzyme.


What is the mode of inheritance for hairloss?

Hairloss is a polygenic trait that does not have a simple mode of inheritance.


Which antibodies will lead to bullous pemphigoid?

Bullous pemphigoid is a result of autoantibodies directed against hemi-desmosomes


What is a common finding in the lesions of urticaria?

Dermal edema is common in urticaria


Which type of sweat gland can lead to an odor?

Apocrine sweat glands produce fluid that is expelled into the hair follicle. Although it is initially odorless, it can develop an odor as it moves toward the surface due to bacteria.


Invasion of what structure can lead to inversion of the nipple and peau de orange in breast cancer?

Invasion of the suspensory ligament can lead to nipple inversion in breast cancer.


What is a skin lesion that is possible in someone just diagnosed with an absorption disorder?

Dermatitis herpetiformis appears on the extensor surfaces largely and is associated with celiac disease.


What is a topical agent that can be used to treat hairloss?

Finasteride (along with minoxidil) can be given topically or orally to prevent hairloss


What is Hartnup's disease and how can the symptoms be helped?

Hartnup's disease will present with the inappropriate excretion of neutral aromatic AAs (tryptophan) in the urine. Niacin supplementation can help, as this is one of the products of tryptophan.


What is a virus that will have a rapidly spreading rash down the body and ear symptoms? What family is it in?

Rubella is a togavirus that has a rapidly spreading rash down the body.


What passes through the jugular foramen?

The jugular foramen carries CN IX, X, and XI along with the int. jugular vein


What passes through the superior orbital fissure?

The superior orbital fissure carries CNIII, IV, V1, VI, and the ophthalmic veins


Where does each branch of the CNV leave the skull?

V1 Sup. Orb. Fissure, V2 Rotundum, V3 Ovale


What is associated with Gaucher's disease?

Gaucher's disease is AR associated with glucocerebrosidase deficiency, crumpled tissue paper macrophages, erlenmeyer flask lesions in the long bones, and hepato-splenomegaly. (Remember Oscar the grouch)


What is associated with Krabbe's disease?

Krabbe's disease has galactocerebroside build-up due to a deficiency of galactocerebroside. It has gobloid cells. Think of Mr. Crab. Also has optic neuropathy and blindness.


What is associated with Tay-Sachs disease?

Tay-sachs disease has a deficiency of hexosaminidase leading to a build-up of GM2 ganglioside. It will have onion skin lysosomes and a cherry red macular spot. Think of a tall gangly red eyed vampire being hexed by a young developmentally challenged kid with onion.


What is associated with Niemann-Pick?

Niemann-Pick is associated with a build-up of sphingomyelin with hepatosplenomegaly.


What is associated with Fabry's disease?

Fabry's is an X-linked recessive with a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase leading to a build-up of ceramide trihexoside.


What is associated with Hunter disease?

Hunters disease has a buildup of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate due to a deficiency of iduronate sulfatase. It has no corneal clouding. It is also X-linked recessive.


What is associated with Hurler's disease?

Has corneal clouding and is associated with a build-up of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Due to deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase. More severe and AR.


If a lysosomal storage disease has a hyphen then what is it associated with?

Cherry red macula


What are the initial substrates for porphyrin synthesis? What inhibits this step of the process? What enzyme is it?

Succinyl CoA and glycine are the initial substrates for porphyrin synthesis. 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALA-synthase) is the enzyme. It is inhibited by heme and glucose and activated by barbiturates.


What early step of porphyrin synthesis is inhibited by lead? What will this lead to?

ALA-dehydratase is inhibited by lead. This will lead to a build-up of 5-ALA. Remember that this happens in the cytosol (college).


What late step of porphyrin synthesis is inhibited by lead? What will this lead to?

Ferrochelatase is also inhibited by lead at the last step in the cycle and this will lead to a build-up of proto-porphyrin.


What converts phenylalanine to tyrosine? A defect here leads to what disorder?

Phenylalanine hydroxylase. A defect leads to PKU. Supplement with tyrosine.


What cofactor is needed to convert tyrosine to dopa?

Tetrahydrobiopterin is needed for this conversion.


A deficiency in which enzyme leads to alkaptonuria?

A deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase is deficient here.


What is the first step in the lung that leads to ARDS?

ARDS begins with endothelial damage, not alveolar wall destruction.


What is the order of heart tissue conduction velocities? (fast to slow)

Purkinje fibers, atria, ventricles, AV node. Remember, "Park AT VENTura AVenue.


What is the term for the feeling of a lump in your throat that has no definite pathological cause?

Globus Hystericus


A woman presents with menstrual pain and has nodules in her fallopian tubes. What is the diagnosis?

Endometriosis. If there is pain during menses and strange nodules it is almost always endometriosis.


What is associated with DNA sequences that come in multiples of 180?

Apoptosis will lead to DNA laddering with sequences in multiples of 180


What is an competitive inhibitor of the acetylcholine receptor?

Atropine is a competitive inhibitor of the acetylcholine receptor.


What can be a result of the slow clearance of diazepam by old people?

Confusion can result in old people who cannot effectively clear diazepam.


Someone presents with blurred vision and a dry mouth. What class of drug might they have overdosed on?

Anticholinergic symptoms include blurred vision and anti-sludge


A patient presents with a leukemia with an auer rod. What is the translocation?

If you see Auer rods think t15:17.


What cells make IL-2? What does it do?

Only lymphocytes make IL-2. It can stimulate the growth and differentiation of T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, and macrophages.


What intercellular adhesion molecule requires calcium?

Cadherins are calcium dependent adhesion molecules that help to form desmosomes. Think about the "Ca"


What will a low pH in the duodenum do?

A low pH in the duodenum will stimulate the release of bile and stimulate the S cells to release secretin leading to more bicarb release from the pancreas.


What is the most common cause of post-partum endometritis?

The most common cause of post-partum endometritis is bacteroides fragilis.


What is another term for read-back?

Reflection is another term for read-back.


WHat is facilitation?

Facilitation is when the interviewer encourages more explanation from the patient .


What is associated with a chronic nasal discharge, atrophic nasal mucosa, and a thinning nasal septum?

Chronic nasal discharge, atrophic nasal mucosa, and a thinning nasal septum are associated with chronic cocaine use.


What is the eventual outcome for GFR of the loss of a kidney?

Losing one kidney will allow you to eventually regain 80% of your baseline GFR, but not 100%


What is the cutoff between acute stress disorder and PTSD?

Acute stress disorder begins soon after the traumatic event and cannot last more than a month, whereas PTSD must last longer than a month.


A deficiency of which enzyme will lead to a disease that is induced by taking medications and causes urine that changes color on sitting?

A deficiency in HMB synthase will lead to acute intermittent porphyria.


What should you be thinking of if you see ages on an inheritance chart?

You should be thinking of anticipation and trinucleotide repeat disorders if you see ages on a family tree.


Where in the cardiac cycle is an S3 sound found?

S3 is found in mid-diastole.


Transudates have a _______ LDH content.

Transudates have a low LDH content


What autoimmune disorder can be associated with a thymoma?

Myasthenia Gravis can be associated with a Thymoma, and removing the thymus can sometimes help with this disease.


What are the most common causes of a joint infection?

S. aureus and N. gonorrheae are the most common causes of joint infections.


What supplementation may be required in someone with DiGeorge syndrome?

Those with DiGeorge syndrome may need supplementation of calcium to help with their lack of parathyroids


What ion will increase in serum concentration in DKA?

Potassium will be increased in DKA.


What can lead to ambiguous genitalia in those with a high testosterone and LH.

Androgen insensitivity syndrome can lead to ambiguous genitalia with a high testosterone and LH. These people are phenotypically female (no internal genitalia), but genotypically male.


What molecule is associated with aspirin induced asthma?

Aspirin induced asthma is associated with excess leukotrienes.


What is the most common type of cancer in the head and neck?

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of cancer in the head and neck.


What does the drop in pre-load caused by NO lead to?

The drop in preload from NO therapy leads to reflex tachycardia unless beta-blockers are given.


Why does cystic fibrosis cause a high salt content of the sweat, but not allow salt to enter mucus secretions in the lungs?

The CTFR protein has different functions in different parts of the body.


What symptoms are associated with Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy? What will the levels of calcium and PTH be here?

Short fingers, short stature, and a round face are associated with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. It has end-organ resistance to PTH leading to pseudohypoparathyroidism with high PTH and low calcium.


What drug block leukotriene D4 activity?

Montelukast blocks leukotriene D4 activity


What causes splenomegaly in alcoholics?

Splenomegaly arises in portal hypertension because the splenic vein is attached to the portal system.


What do drug efflux pumps require to function?

Drug efflux pumps require a concentration gradient to function, so adding H+ to the mix can influence their activity.


What gene mutation is associated with achondroplasia?

FGFR3 mutation is associated with achondroplasia.


Bruton's tyrosine kinase is required for B-cell maturation. What chromosome encodes it?

The X chromosome encodes bruton's tyrosine kinase.


What cofactor is required for branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase? (A mutation here leads to Maple syrup urine disease)

Thiamine is required for branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase.


What change in RBCs is associated with thalassemias?

Microcytosis is associated with thalassemias.


What cells are dysfunctional if someone cannot get testosterone into their testicles?

Sertoli cell dysfunction will prevent the production of androgen binding protein that is required to get testosterone into the cells.


What messaging system does glucagon use?

Glucagon uses a Gs protein (cAMP) to provide its action.


What type of collagen is found in articular cartilage?

Type 2 collagen is found in articular cartilage.


Where does the round ligament from the inguinal canal go?

The round ligament goes to the uterus!


What enzymatic process is required to synthesize epinephrine and vanillylmandelic acid?

Methylation is required for the synthesis of the last two products in the tyrosine metabolic path.


What will be the metabolic results of a sufficiently large PE?

A large PE will cause hypoxemia and metabolic alkalosis acutely.


What pathway does platelet activating factor act through?

PAF acts through the IP3 pathway to release calcium


Why do you treat a duodenal ulcer with Abx along with a PPI?

You treat with antibiotics to clear the H. pylori and prevent recurrence.


What antibiotic is associated with severe pruritis and a rash after injection?

Vancomycin is associated with severe pruritis and a rash "red man syndrome". This is not IgE related and can be fixed by slowing the injection.


What uterine condition is associated with pain and menorrhagia?

Leiomyomas can be associated with pain and menorrhagia.


How does ischemic colitis present?

Ischemic colitis presents with decreased bowel sounds and pain with defecation. It has mucosal hemorrhage and patchy areas of necrosis.


What makes the X and Y intercepts of a lineweaver-burke plot?

The X intercept is the Km and 1/Vmax is the Y intercept.


How do the thiazolidinediones work?

The glitazones activate PPAR-gamma leading to an increase in GLUT 4 activity. This also induces pre-adipocyte maturation.


What is the most common place to find lesions in Crohn's disease?

The ilium is the most common location for lesions in crohn's disease.


How does cimetidine interact with warfarin?

Cimetidine blocks cyp 450 action and leads to increased warfarin concentration and increased PT.


What role do beta agonists play in muscle contraction?

Beta agonists increase the level of cAMP in the muscle cells and prevents them from contracting by blocking myosin phosphorylation.


What does vitamin D deficiency in old people lead to?

Vitamin D deficiency in older people leads to osteomalacia, NOT osteoporosis.


What will cause thinning of the skin and ulceration along with pain with exercise?

Femoral artery atherosclerosis will cause thinning of the skin and ulceration.


What is the goal of open ended questioning?

Open ended questioning is designed to elicit responsive informative answers (not one word)


What is an example of a small dsDNA virus that uses the host cell nucleus to replicate?

Papova viruses use the host nucleus to replicate their genome.


What is an infection that may appear in someone returning from south america that will have cavitary lung lesions (Not MTB)?

Coccidioides is associated with the San Juaquin valley, but is also found in central and south america.


What will cause and increase in the oxygenation of the RA and RV blood, but not decrease the oxygenation of the LA and LV?

An ASD will cause this.


What is an X-linked recessive disorder that will cause muscle symptoms early in life?

DMD is an X-linked recessive disorder that will cause muscle symptoms by the age of five.


What will cause constitutive symptoms and will have a tender prostate on rectal exam?



What change in the arterioles of the Kidney will lead to an increase in GFR and a decrease in RPF?

Constriction of the efferent arteriole will cause this change.


What nerve type in the autonomic system will be unmyelinated?

Postganglionic sympathetic nerves tend to not be myelinated.


What is the equation for standard error?

Standard error = standard deviation/sqrt(sample size)


What type of virus is picornavirus?

Picornavirus, as an enterovirus, is a ssRNA+ virus.


What condition is associated with reduced taste, a burning sensation in the mouth, and lip dryness?

Iron deficiency anemia


What is one of the first changes in insulin resistance?

Insulin resistance will initially result only in an increased baseline level of insulin secretion.


What is the definition of genetic heterogeneity?

Genetic heterogeneity is when two different mutations can cause a similar phenotype. Marfan's and homocystinuria are examples of this.


Which part of the kidney will have tubular necrosis?

Acute tubular necrosis occurs in the medulla.


What heritable condition will lead to a decrease in the number of LDL receptors?

FH will cause a decrease in the number of LDL receptors leading to an increase in LDL


What disease is associated with a murmur that is heard best in the left lateral decubitus position at the end of exhalation?

Rheumatic fever will have a diastolic murmur indicative of mitral stenosis (fish-mouth).


What disease will cause pigmented mucocutaneous macules around the mouth and multiple GI hamartomas?

Peutz-Jeghers disease is AD and will cause pigmented mucocutaneous nodules and GI hamartomas.


What will cause an enlarging painful mass of adipocytes with scalloped nuclei?

Liposarcoma will cause an enlarging painful mass of adipocytes with scalloped nuclei.


What is a disorder that will lead to bullae that will easily rupture and can be found in the throat? What is the problem?

Pemphigus vulgaris is a disorder of the epidermis that affects desmoglein 1 and 3 in the desmosomes.


Defective development of which cell line will cause low lung compliance and Neonatal Respiratory distress syndrome?

A deficiency in type 2 pneumocytes will cause low lung compliance and Neonatal Respiratory distress syndrome due to a lack of surfactant production.


What is the underlying problem in diabetes insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus has renal tubular dysfunction and leads to urine that will not concentrate.


What is the usual finding in the vessels associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy will have relatively normal coronary arteries.


Where is the second heart sound heard?

The second heart sound is heard when the aortic and pulmonic valves close. There is a gap between this moment and when the atrial valves open.


What enzyme is responsible for removing the RNA primers from DNA synthesis and replacing them with DNA?

DNA POL 1 is responsible for replacing the RNA primers with DNA.


How does cyclosporin work? What toxicity can it cause? What is an alternative without this toxicity?

Cyclosporin is a calcineurin inhibitor that prevents the production of IL-2. It can cause renal toxicity. Sirolimus is not associated with renal toxicity.


What treatment should be avoided in someone with parkinson's who is having abdominal issues?

Metoclopramide should be avoided in people with Parkinson's because it can make their symptoms worse due to its dopaminergic blocking abilities.


What is a later problem associated with alkaptonuria?

Alkaptonuria can eventually lead to a debilitating arthritis due to the deposition of homogentisic acid in the cartilage.


Loss of what neurons found in the cerebral peduncle will cause parkinsonism?

Loss of the substantia nigra, found in the cerebral peduncle, will lead to parkinsonism.


What is a problem for women who run marathons?

Women who do extreme sports are at risk of not having enough estrogen due to a lack of GnRH and LH


What will a deficiency of cystathionine synthase lead to?

A deficiency of cystathionine synthase will lead to an accumulation of methionine.


What makes heparin a better choice than warfarin in pregnant women?

Heparin is much more water soluble than warfarin, and so it will not easily cross the placental barrier. This makes it a good choice for pregnant women who need anticoagulation.


What virulence factor is responsible for gonorrhea cause GU infections?

The pili of gonorrhea make it virulent in the GU tract.


What is used to treat retinitis in HIV+ people? How does it work?

Ganciclovir is used to treat CMV retinitis in AIDS patients. It works by preventing DNA chain elongation.


What allows a bird flu to infect humans?

Genetic reassortment is what can make bird flu infective to humans.


What part of the jugular venous pressure graph shows atrial contraction?

The a-wave on jugular venous pressure shows atrial contraction after passive emptying. It is often superimposed with the c wave of ventricular contraction.


What condition will have an oxygen saturation that improves with squatting?

Tetralogy of Fallot has an increased oxygen saturation with squatting.


What are the four characteristics of TOF?

Tetralogy of Fallot has overriding aorta, VSD, pulmonic stenosis, and Right ventricular hypertrophy.


Where are stem cells found in the gut?

Stem cells in the gut are found in the crypts of Liberkuhn.


What causes cerebellar degeneration in alcoholics?

Alcoholic cerebellar degeneration is often due to a thiamine deficiency and will cause a "parkinsonian" tremor in the fingers and hands


What vitamin deficiency will cause bruising similar to that seen in Ehlers-Danlos?

Vitamin C deficiency will cause bruising similar to that seen in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.


What is a common cause of infertility in women who do not have any apparent symptoms?

PID can cause infertility long after the infection that caused it has resolved.


A decrease in the extracellular concentration of ___________ would diminish the magnitude of an action potential.

A decrease in the extracellular concentration of sodium would diminish the magnitude of an action potential.


What is a major concern later in life for those who receive radiation to their head or neck region?

Thyroid carcinoma is a major risk factor in those who receive head and neck radiation, especially as children.


A defect in the conversion of dopamine would lead to what effect on standing?

Orthostatic hypotension can occur if you are unable to convert dopamine to norepinephrine.


What would a lesion to the radial nerve cause in the arm?

A lesion to the radial nerve would cause weakness in the extensor compartments of the arm and forearm.


How do adenoviruses replicate their genetic material?

Adenoviruses are naked dsDNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus.


What measure of Renal function will increase if you decrease blood flow to the kidney?

Filtration fraction will increase if RBF decreases.


Stimulation of which receptors is required to prevent orthostatic hypotension?

Stimulation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors is required to prevent orthostatic hypotension.


What is the name of a weight loss drug approved by the FDA?

Orlistat is a weight loss drug approved by the FDA.


What will be increased in someone who has red urine and muscle weakness soon after exercising?

Glycogen will be increased in McArdle's disease (a deficiency of myophosphorylase "glycogen phosphorylase")


Where in a protein is glycine often found?

Glycine is often found in transmembrane portions of proteins because it is hydrophobic. The same goes for the other neutral AAs.


What is the most likely site of spread of an invasive infection of the nares?

The cavernous sinus is the most likely site of spread for an invasive infection of the nares.


What disorder will cause babies to turn blue when they feed, cry, or exercise?

Tetralogy of Fallot will cause babies to turn blue when they feed, cry, or exercise.


What can be a long term sequela of mumps infection?

Testosterone deficiency can result in those who are infected with mumps.


Excess contraction of which muscle group will cause the appearance of lordosis?

Over contraction of the hip flexors will cause the pelvis to tilt forward making it look like you have lordosis.


What is a common paraneoplastic syndrome that will involve the kidney?

Membranous glomerulonephritis is common in those with cancer. It will have subepithelial spikes.


What enzymes will cause an increase in insulin secretion if you eat, but not with TPN?

Glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory peptide both cause an increase in insulin secretion.


What cells make Apo-B48?

The intestinal cells make Apo-B48, so they need an additional lipoprotein to form chylomicrons.


What drug can prevent the flushing associated with niacin therapy?

Aspirin is used to prevent the flushing associated with niacin.


What DNA deformities are part of normal human variance?

SNPs and Restriction fragment length polymorphisms are part of normal human variance.


What is the only RNA virus that replicates in the nucleus?

Flu virus is the only RNA virus that replicates in the nucleus.


What effect does insulin have on glut 4?

Insulin causes GLUT4 to translocate to the cell membrane where it can have its effect in myocytes and adipocytes.


A lesion in which nerve will cause a sensory deficit in the lateral leg and dorsal foot?

The common peroneal nerve runs across the fibula at the knee where it is most commonly injured.


A deficiency in which enzyme will lead to hyperammonemia and increased excretion of orotic acid in the urine?

A deficiency in OTC will lead to the buildup of carbamoyl phosphate which will be converted to orotic acid and excreted in the urine.


What is inhibited if proline hydroxylation is disrupted?

Disrupted proline hydroxylation will not allow for proper triple helix formation in the RER


What often leads to osteoporosis in older women?

The ovary shutting down often leads to osteoporosis in older women due to lower levels of estrogen production.


What should making up memories that you didn't actually experience and memory loss indicate to you in someone who has been drinking a lot?

Korsakoff syndrome is associated with memory impairment and confabulation in heavy drinkers.


Where will an abscess form if pus spreads along the psoas muscle?

A groin abscess can form if pus spreads along the psoas muscle.


What group of people are at increased risk of an outbreak of shingles?

Immunosuppressed people are at a greater risk of outbreaks of shingles and all other latent viral infections.


What will increased deadspace do in a person on mechanical ventilation?

Increased deadspace in a person on mechanical ventilation will lead to acidosis and increased PaCO2.


What disorder is associated with microsatellite instability?

Lynch syndrome is associated with microsatellite instability due to erroneous mismatch repair enzymes.


What is a potential outcome in someone with endometriosis?

Endometriosis often can cause infertility.


What is an infection that can cause ulceration of the abdominal mucosa in someone with AIDS?

CMV colitis can occur in those with AIDS and will cause abdominal ulceration. Candida cannot do this.


What is blocked by antiretrovirals that inhibit gp41?

gp41 inhibitors prevent membrane fusion. enfurvirtide is the drug that does this.


HbF will behave very much like _____ without 2,3-BPG.

HbF will behave very much like HbA without 2,3-BPG.


Deposits in which part of the eye will lead to Kayser-Fleischer rings?

Corneal deposits are associated with Kayser-Fleischer rings.


What enzyme is required for the oxidative burst in polys? What does it make?

NADPH oxidase is required for the oxidative burst in neutrophils. It is used to make superoxide


What will lead to acute onset chest pain with a widened mediastinum and an abnormal aortic contour?

Aortic dissection will lead to these symptoms and signs.


The cerebellum is a derivative of the _____________

The cerebellum is a derivative of the rhombencephalon.


What does an iliopsoas sign indicate?

A positive iliopsoas sign indicates inflammation of the muscles or their overlying parenchyma.


What form does alcoholic cardiomyopathy take?

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy.


What other structure is the esophagus associated with as it passes through the diaphragm?

The esophagus is associated with the vagus nerve as it passes through the diaphragm.


What is the role of amlodipine?

DHP CCBs work on the arterioles to decrease afterload .


What condition will have cardiac enlargement and lysosomal PAS staining for granules of glycogen? What causes it?

Pompe's disease will have cardiac enlargement and lysosomal PAS staining granules of glycogen. It is due to alpha-1,4,-glucosidase deficiency.


What is the most common cause of osteomyelitis in those with sickle cell disease?

Gram negative rods are the most common cause of osteomyelitis in those with sickle cell disease.


What will cause pinpoint pupils, quadriparesis, and decerebrate posturing?

Pontine hemorrhage will cause pinpoint pupils, quadriparesis, and decerebrate posturing. It can quickly progress to death.


What is the cause of increased ICP in those with low grade astrocytoma?

Vasogenic edema is associated with astrocytoma. It is due to compromise of the BBB.


What is associated with arthritis and conjunctivitis following an infection?

Reiter syndrome will cause arthritis and conjunctivitis after an infection (most often with chlamydia)


What is the role of agents that block GIIb/IIIa

These agents prevent the action of integrins.