Flashcards in Bolshevik Consolidation of Power 1917-24 Deck (50):
What was Trotsky position in government in October 1917?
Commissar of Foreign Affairs
What did Lenin claim the October Revolution was?
A taking of power by the soviets
What was state capitalism?
The transitional stage of using the existing economic structures until the transition to a command economy had been completed
What was the level of industrial production in 1917?
2/3rds of its 1914 level
How short were grain supplies compared to the demand in 1917?
13m tons short
What was Vesenkha?
Set up 'to take charge of all existing institutions for the regulation of economic life'
What initial developments did Vesenkha make?
- Banks and railway were nationalised
- Foreign debts were cancelled
- Transport system made less chaotic
How did the Bolsheviks fair in the Constitute Assembly election results?
Outvoted nearly 2 to 1 by the SRs
= 24% of vote
What was Lenin's justification for shutting down the CA?
Claimed its original reason for creation had already been achieved by the creation of a Soviet government in October 1917
What were Lenin's reasons for withdrawing from the war?
- no real benefit for Russia to remain in
- Russia could not match Germany - little resources
What did the Left Communists believe?
Were convinced that their first task was to consolidate the revolution by driving the German imperialists from Russia
What did Russia loose after the ToBL?
- 1/3 of its European lands
- the 45m people in these lands
- Had to pay 3b roubles in reparation payments
Why did Lenin not want to form a coalition?
- Made a successful counter revolution easier to mount
- Bolsheviks would have been unable to dominate in government
How much had Petrograd workforce shrunk by June 1918 due to hunger?
60% - overall population had decline from 3 to 2m
Why had the Left-SRs been driven from government?
Due to their refusal to accept ToBL
How divided were the Whites?
Many different groups formed all over Russia e.g. White army in Siberia and other groups in Estonia etc
How did the Bolsheviks keep themselves supplied during the civil war?
Due to their desperate fight to maintain control of the railways
What are 3 reasons why the Whites lost?
- lacked leaders with quality such as Trotsky
- had no united aim
What were the Reds strengths?
- controlled central areas as well as Petrograd and Moscow
- held industrial centres
- Whites were depended on supplies from abroad
- Red army was extremely well organised
What was Trotsky's strategy during the civil war?
- defend red army's internal lines of communication
- deny the whites the opportunity to concentrate in large forces
- prevent the whites maintain regular supplies
How did the Reds gain troops?
Offered defeated enemy troops either enlistment or execution
Why did the Reds loose the sympathy of the peasants?
Due to war communism
How did the civil war effect members of the party?
It created a tradition of military obedience and loyalty
How did the civil war lead to later authoritarianism?
It left the government with a readiness to resort to coercion, rule by administration and centralised administration
How did the civil war lead to centralisation?
The war required day-to-day decisions to be made = power put in the hands of the politburo
Who were the PG and the Bolsheviks funded by?
PG = allies in the war
Bolsheviks = Germany
What was one of the key reasons for anti-Bolshevism in the West?
Financial reasons = no intention of honouring foreign debts and nationalised a large number of foreign companies
Why did countries within the Russian empire get involved with the civil war?
To gain independence
What incidents contributed to the precedent of terror?
- Assassination of the German ambassador by the SRs
- Attempt on Lenin's life
- Murder of the Petrograd chairman of the Cheka
How were the workers brought under military discipline in 1920?
- forbidden to question orders
- could not negotiate their rates or pay or conditions
- could be severely punished for poor workmanship
Who were political commissars?
Dedicated party workers whose function was to accompany the officers permanently and report on their political correctness
During the civil war how many provinces of European Russia did the Bolsheviks hold
Why did nationalisation under WC do nothing to increase production?
- Imposed at a time of severe industrial disruption
- military needs were given priority
- factories deprived of man power
How much coal was produced in 1913 compared to 1921?
1913 = 29m tons
1921 = 8.9m tons
Why did WC not produce any extra food?
Peasants knew any surplus would be taken so only produced the bare minimum
= Bolsheviks blamed in on hoarding
How did the grain harvests in 1920-21 fair compared to 1913?
Less than half of what was gathered in 1913
How many people did pravda report were starving by 1921?
1 in 5
What was ARA?
America gave food supplies to Russia during the 1921 famine
Why was the Kronstadt uprising surprising?
They were workers and soldiers who had initially been great supporters of the Bolsheviks
- want the Bolsheviks to return to the same promises that inspired the revolution
What were the ring leaders of the Kronstadt rising classed as?
What did the Kronstadt rising lead to?
NEP = to lessen the opposition to Bolshevism
What was a tax in kind under NEP?
The peasant surrendered a certain amount of produce, equivalent to a fixed sum of money
What caused Lenin to introduce the ban on factions?
Opposition to the NEP
What did the ban on factions ban?
- opposition within the party
- all other parties apart from the Bolsheviks
What did Bukharin believe about the NEP?
The greater amount of money the peasants would have would stimulate industry some their extra income would he spent on buying manufactured goods
What was the grain harvest like in 1921 and 1924?
1921 = 37m tons
1924 = 51m tons
What was the value of factory output in 1921 and 1924?
1921 = 2004m roubles
1924 = 4660m roubles
What was the average wage in 1921 and 1924?
1921 = 10 roubles a month
1924 = 20 roubles a month
How had the NEP produced an economic balance?
Agriculture and trade were largely in private hands while the state dominated Russian industry