Flashcards in From War to War 1904-14 Deck (37):
Why did Russia go to war with Japan?
- To pursue an expansionist policy in the Far East
- To obtain an ice-free port
- To distract attention from the domestic problems
What happened to the Russian baltic fleet?
Travelled for 8 months to Japan only to be destroyed straight away
What was one of the main reasons Russia lost to Japan?
Because the military commanders had not prepared effectively
What 3 main opposition classes did the tsarist government face in 1905?
The workers, peasantry and the reformist middle class
- revolt ended up being accidental rather than planned
- a result of economic factors rather than political ones
During Bloody Sunday what was the marchers intentions?
To present a loyal petition to the tsar begging him to use his royal authority to relieve their desperate conditions
What did Bloody Sunday damage?
The traditional image of the tsar as the 'Little Father'
What was the immediate reaction to Bloody Sunday?
Widespread outbreak of disorder, strikes, terrorism
What did the unrest and governments difficulty in containing it cause the nationalities to do?
- Georgia declared itself an independent state
- Poles demanded autonomy
- Jews pressed for equal rights
What was the Union of Unions?
Led by the Kadets with the aim of organising a broad-based alliance that would include the peasants and factory workers
- called for a constituent assembly
What was the Potemkin mutiny?
Crew of this battleship were fed up with the conditions so ended up attacking the officers and taking over the ship
What were the Soviets?
Began as organisations to represent the worker's demands for better conditions
- their potential for political agitation was immediately recognised by revolutionaries
What did the October Manifesto promise?
- creation of the duma = appease liberals
- civil rights
- legalising TUs
How were the peasants appeased after 1905?
November manifesto reduced and eventually abolished redemption payments
How were the workers dealt with after 1905?
Government felt they could crush the soviets
- headquarters stormed and leaders arrested
What is a notable feature of the 1905 revolution?
How much of a minor part was played by the revolutionaries
What indicated that groups such as the peasants and liberals were not ready for a revolution?
Their readiness to accept the government's political and economic bribes
What did 1905 show would prevent a revolution?
As long as the government kept its nerve and had the armed forces on its side
How had the governments own responsibility led to 1905?
- incompetent leadership
What was Stolypin's guiding principle?
'suppression first and then, and only then, reform
- but considered reform should be introduced as a way of reducing social bitterness
How were the peasants 'de-revolutinaised'
Their fear was that the government was about to seize their land due to not keeping up with payments = gov announced repayments would be cancelled
What was Stolypin's 'wager on the strong?'
To create a later of prosperous, productive peasants = kulaks
What did tsarist tax returns show about Stolypin's reforms?
Show a significant minority of peasants were paying increasingly higher taxes in the 1890s = a sign their farming was producing high profits
Why were peasants slow to respond to Stolypin's reforms?
Due to their deep conservatism
What limited the power of the Duma?
- Gov. negotiated a loan from France = duma couldn't exercise financial hold over the gov
- Fundamental laws
How was the Duma bi-cameral?
One chamber would be an elected lower house, and the other would be a state council appointed by the tsar
= took away the Dumas power
What was the Vyborg appeal?
Tsar dissolved the first duma:
- 200 Kadets and Labouritst reassembled in Vyborg and drew up an appeal, urging people of Russia to defy the gov. in 2 ways:
- refuse to pay taxes
- disobey conscription orders
Why was Martial law proclaimed?
To suppress the disturbances caused by the Vyborg appeal
Why did the Kadets loose half their seats in the 2nd Duma and who replaced them?
Due to the Vyborg appeal - replaced by SRs and SDs
= new assembly strongly anti-gov
Why did the tsar not end the Duma after the first 2 failings?
- Wanted to show Russia as a democratic nation
- New laws were introduced which restricted lower classes right to vote = 3rd and 4th Duma very right wing
What was the committee system and how did the 3rd Duma use it?
A process in which the duma deputies formed various committees to discuss and advise on particular issues
- 3rd duma made proposals for modernising the armed services
What were 2 of the bills the duma approved?
- Setting up schools for the poor
- National insurance for workers
How was the 4th Duma similar and different to the 3rd?
Social reform work continued but also prepared to criticise the government
How many 'political' strikes were there in 1911 and 1914?
1911 = 24
1914 = 2401
- due to the government increasing repression
What happened in the Lena Goldfields incident 1912?
Demands for better pay and conditions were resisted by employers who appeal to the police to arrest strike leaders
= ended up being fired upon - showed the TU issue in Russia
How did the Octoberists feel about the tsar by 1913?
Leader Guchkov began waring that the blindness of the Tsars government was driving Russian people closer to revolution
What was Witte and Stolypin's shared aim?
The preservation of the tsarist system
= if the gov had been willing to support them this might have prevented the build up of the social and political tensions