Flashcards in WWII Deck (34):
Why was Soviet foreign policy contradictory after the revolution?
On the one hand wanted to develop trade and relations with neighbouring states and on the other wanted to spread communist revolution
What was the Third Communist International (Comintern)
Founded in Moscow 1919:
= intended to be a more revolutionary organisation than its predecessor, purpose was to sponsor + promote world revolution
Why were foreign states at first hostile to the Soviets?
Due to instructions to foreign communists to infiltrate political systems
What were the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with the USSR?
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania + Finland in 1920
What did the 1922 Genoa Conference offer?
Credit and loans to USSR in return for the settlement of debts from the Tsarist era + the restoration of foreign business
= USSR refused
What was the Treaty of Rapallo 1922?
Secret agreements made for G troops to train and their technology to be tested in the USSR
= gain access to German technology
When did Britain recognise the USSR?
Why did relations with Britain break down and when were they created again?
Due to the Zinoviev letter - no relations until 1930
When did the French recognise the USSR?
1924 + signed a non-aggression pact in 1932
When did the USSR recognise the USSR?
Completely opposed to USSR until 1933
What was the Anti-Comintern pact 1936?
Alliance between Germany and Japan against the USSR
- Italy join in 1937
= stop the activities of comintern
Why did the Czech Crisis 1938 persuade Stalin that Britain and France could not be trusted as possible allies against Germany?
Appeased Hitler + ignored Stalin's protests in the LoN
What was the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact 1939?
Economic agreement: provided raw materials + machinery from G in exchange for food
Non-Aggression agreement: amicable resolution of any disputes
Secret Agreement: Division of Poland
What was the Russo-Finish War?
Russia requested a small piece of land to keep Leningrad defended
- ended up as a small war = Russia got territory around Leingrad
Why did Hitler invade the USSR 1941?
- Felt there was no real Western Front
- Ideological motive = hated Bolshevism
- Stalin demanding territories
- Thought Stalin would go back on the agreement
What caused the failure of Operation Barbarossa?
- Fighting on 2 fronts
- Hitler's arrogance + compliance
- Scorched earth policy + cold weather
What was the battle of Kursk July 1943?
Largest tank battle in history:
- USSR annihilates Germany on the Eastern Front
- Had better technology + intelligence = MAJOR CHANGE
Why did Germany want Stalingrad 1942-43?
- caucasus as a major oil producing area in USSR = used for munitions
Why was the siege of Leningrad 1941-44 a victory for the USSR?
Failure to capture the birthplace of the revolution = boosted moral + encouraged Russians to resist
What was Stalin's scorched earth policy?
During all crops + removal of all industrial capacity so G had to bring own supplies
What were the Russian casualties of the war?
About 20m = 14% of population
- Took the brunt of the war compared to allies
What were the conditions of Western USSR by the end of the war?
Had been ravaged by invasion and scotched earth
What were the external/foreign benefits for the USSR?
- Emerged as a superpower = went on to dominate international relations for the rest of the 20th century
- Part of the Grand Alliance
- Soviet Army had liberated EE
- Regained lost territory from WWI
What were the internal benefits for the USSR?
Stalin secured his grip on the communist party
What was Stalin's view on worldwide revolution?
- Propaganda showed Stalin was pledge to active encouragement of worldwide revolution
- BUT in practice he did not judge the USSR as being strong enough to sustain a genuine revolutionary foreign policy
When Germany were deploying forces on the USSRs border what did Stalin believe?
That this was not an actual invasion
- claimed British intelligence were distorting the picture to get the USSR to attack Germany
Why was the Soviet army so ill-prepared for the German invasion?
Due to the purges of army officials
How much larger were the Soviet Unions forces compared to the Germans?
- matched Germany in the number of troops
- had 4x the no. of tanks
- 3x the no. of aircraft
By the end of 1941 how much of the population was under German occupation?
By the end of 1941 how much of the nations industry was in German hands?
By the end of 1941 what had steel and iron production dropped by?
By the end of 1941 how much of the railway system was no longer usable?
By the end of 1941 how much had grain stocks been reduced by?