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Flashcards in Opposition Deck (52):
1

How did AII face opposition from the peasants?

Peasant uprisings after the Crimean war

2

Who were the Populists (AII)?

Agrarian socialism - peasant commune + basics of a 'good society'
= failed opposition as peasants not interested

3

Who were Land and Liberty (AII)?

Secret organisations, centrally run with 'cells' in various religions

4

Who were The People's Will (AII)?

Terrorist organisation
- assassination of AII in 1881

5

What were the reasons for opposition under AII?

- Failed reforms e.g. emancipation
- Want for increased reform
- No legal platform for opposition

6

Who were the SRs (AIII)?

Political group - included workers and an emphasis on peasants

7

Who were the SDs (AIII)?

1903 party split:
- Mensheviks = slow approach to revolution and prepared to cooperate with socialists
- Bolsheviks = speed up process of revolution and refused to cooperate with socialists

8

What opposition did AIII face?

- Assassination attempts
- SRs and SDs
- Opposition remains illegal

9

What opposition did NII faced in 1905?

Bloody Sunday = workers opposition

10

When was opposition made legal?

1905 - October Manifesto + creation of Duma

11

What was the Lena Gold Fields?

1912 = massacre of workers

12

Why was there less opposition in 1914?

Beginning of the war = patriotism and unity

13

How does WWI increase opposition?

- Generals beging to oppose NII
- Population dissatisfied
- Influence of Rasputin and Alexandria

14

Why was opposition successful during the abdication of NII in Feb 1917?

Opposition groups united and were not fragmented

15

Why did the PG face little opposition?

Political amnesty
BUT PG was not legitimate

16

Who was the PG biggest opposition?

The PS = rivalry + control of the army (dual authority)

17

What were the July Days?

1917: Kornilov
- Popular protest against the war
- Opposition to policies not the government

18

How was the October Revolution successful?

Overthrew the government

19

What internal opposition did Lenin face?

- Within the party
- Intelligentsia
- Factions e.g. Platform of 46

20

What external opposition did Lenin face?

- Non-party
- Intelligenstia
- Nationalist groups
- Religions
- Whites
- Kronstadt sailors

21

What were the results of the November 1917 Constitute Assembly?

50% SRs 25% Bolsheviks

22

Who was Fanny Kaplan?

An SR who tried to assassinate Lenin

23

What happened as a result of the assassination attempt on Lenin?

Red Terror = foundation of terror

24

How did Lenin face more opposition than any other leader?

Civil War

25

What was the ban on factions?

1921:
No democracy in party - prevents internal opposition

26

Who were the Left Opposition?

1923-27 = Trotsky and his supporters

27

Who were the United Opposition?

1926: Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev

28

Who did Stalin face opposition from?

- Kulaks
- Nationalists
- Old Bolsheviks (e.g. Kirov murdered 1934)
- General population

29

How did Stalin deal with opposition?

Terror:
- Police state = most too scared to publicly announce opposition

30

What internal opposition did Khrushchev face?

Military, party, bureaucracy = party opposed to reform

31

What external opposition did Khrushchev face?

Hungarian uprising 1956

32

How did illegality of opposition cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?

- opposition much more dangerous
- increased reactionary nature of the state

33

How did Russification cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?

Opposition among the nationalities

34

How did economic growth cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?

- M/C with political demands
- Urban poverty + discontent

35

How did reforms to judiciary and zemstva cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?

- Opportunities for participation in politics for the m/c/intelligentsia

36

How did education ad literacy cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?

- Spread of new ideas and criticism
- Access to ideas from the west

37

How did the reluctance of the Tsars to reform cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?

- Little flexibility in government and a preference for repression

38

How did the failure of reform cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?

- E.g. emancipation = peasant discontent

39

How did the PG receive opposition from the peasants?

Defied the government + seized land

40

How did the PG receive opposition from the Bolsheviks?

Rejected the PG + called for 'All power to the Soviets'

41

How did the PG receive opposition from the Nationalities?

Wanted autonomy

42

How did the PG receive opposition from the workers?

Rioting in July

43

How did the Communists economic policies create opposition?

- War Communism = Kronstadt soldiers
- Collectivisation = Kulaks
- 5 year plans = accusations of wreaking and sabotage

44

How was their opposition from Trotsky?

- Opposed Lenin over Democratic Centralism
- NEP
- Stalin

45

How was there socio-economic discontent under the communists?

e.g. Novocherkassk/riots

46

How did ideology create opposition under the communists?

- SRs - Fanny Kaplan
- Whites - Tsarists
- Capitalism - the West

47

How was there opposition from religion under the communists?

- Jews/Muslims
- Christians
= denied worship

48

How was there opposition from the party under the communists?

Wanted continuity/secure jobs

49

How was there opposition from the nationalities and satellite states under the communists?

Wanted autonomy

50

Ho was their external/foreign opposition under the communists?

- Civil War
- WWII
- Cold War

51

How was there opposition in the form of deviance under the communists?

- Counter-revolutinaries
- Class enemies
= did they actually exist?

52

How was there opposition from intellectuals under the communists?

- Osip Mandelstram
- Alexander Solzhenitsyn
- Shostakovich