Flashcards in Opposition Deck (52):
How did AII face opposition from the peasants?
Peasant uprisings after the Crimean war
Who were the Populists (AII)?
Agrarian socialism - peasant commune + basics of a 'good society'
= failed opposition as peasants not interested
Who were Land and Liberty (AII)?
Secret organisations, centrally run with 'cells' in various religions
Who were The People's Will (AII)?
- assassination of AII in 1881
What were the reasons for opposition under AII?
- Failed reforms e.g. emancipation
- Want for increased reform
- No legal platform for opposition
Who were the SRs (AIII)?
Political group - included workers and an emphasis on peasants
Who were the SDs (AIII)?
1903 party split:
- Mensheviks = slow approach to revolution and prepared to cooperate with socialists
- Bolsheviks = speed up process of revolution and refused to cooperate with socialists
What opposition did AIII face?
- Assassination attempts
- SRs and SDs
- Opposition remains illegal
What opposition did NII faced in 1905?
Bloody Sunday = workers opposition
When was opposition made legal?
1905 - October Manifesto + creation of Duma
What was the Lena Gold Fields?
1912 = massacre of workers
Why was there less opposition in 1914?
Beginning of the war = patriotism and unity
How does WWI increase opposition?
- Generals beging to oppose NII
- Population dissatisfied
- Influence of Rasputin and Alexandria
Why was opposition successful during the abdication of NII in Feb 1917?
Opposition groups united and were not fragmented
Why did the PG face little opposition?
BUT PG was not legitimate
Who was the PG biggest opposition?
The PS = rivalry + control of the army (dual authority)
What were the July Days?
- Popular protest against the war
- Opposition to policies not the government
How was the October Revolution successful?
Overthrew the government
What internal opposition did Lenin face?
- Within the party
- Factions e.g. Platform of 46
What external opposition did Lenin face?
- Nationalist groups
- Kronstadt sailors
What were the results of the November 1917 Constitute Assembly?
50% SRs 25% Bolsheviks
Who was Fanny Kaplan?
An SR who tried to assassinate Lenin
What happened as a result of the assassination attempt on Lenin?
Red Terror = foundation of terror
How did Lenin face more opposition than any other leader?
What was the ban on factions?
No democracy in party - prevents internal opposition
Who were the Left Opposition?
1923-27 = Trotsky and his supporters
Who were the United Opposition?
1926: Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev
Who did Stalin face opposition from?
- Old Bolsheviks (e.g. Kirov murdered 1934)
- General population
How did Stalin deal with opposition?
- Police state = most too scared to publicly announce opposition
What internal opposition did Khrushchev face?
Military, party, bureaucracy = party opposed to reform
What external opposition did Khrushchev face?
Hungarian uprising 1956
How did illegality of opposition cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?
- opposition much more dangerous
- increased reactionary nature of the state
How did Russification cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?
Opposition among the nationalities
How did economic growth cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?
- M/C with political demands
- Urban poverty + discontent
How did reforms to judiciary and zemstva cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?
- Opportunities for participation in politics for the m/c/intelligentsia
How did education ad literacy cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?
- Spread of new ideas and criticism
- Access to ideas from the west
How did the reluctance of the Tsars to reform cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?
- Little flexibility in government and a preference for repression
How did the failure of reform cause opposition to grow under the Tsars?
- E.g. emancipation = peasant discontent
How did the PG receive opposition from the peasants?
Defied the government + seized land
How did the PG receive opposition from the Bolsheviks?
Rejected the PG + called for 'All power to the Soviets'
How did the PG receive opposition from the Nationalities?
How did the PG receive opposition from the workers?
Rioting in July
How did the Communists economic policies create opposition?
- War Communism = Kronstadt soldiers
- Collectivisation = Kulaks
- 5 year plans = accusations of wreaking and sabotage
How was their opposition from Trotsky?
- Opposed Lenin over Democratic Centralism
How was there socio-economic discontent under the communists?
How did ideology create opposition under the communists?
- SRs - Fanny Kaplan
- Whites - Tsarists
- Capitalism - the West
How was there opposition from religion under the communists?
= denied worship
How was there opposition from the party under the communists?
Wanted continuity/secure jobs
How was there opposition from the nationalities and satellite states under the communists?
Ho was their external/foreign opposition under the communists?
- Civil War
- Cold War
How was there opposition in the form of deviance under the communists?
- Class enemies
= did they actually exist?