Flashcards in The October Revolution Deck (43):
What were two big weaknesses of the Provisional Government?
1) It was not an elected body = lack legitimate authority
2) Was limited by its unofficial partnership with the PS
What was the Petrograd Soviet's role?
Regarded its role as supervisory, checking that the interests of the soldiers and workers were fully understood
Where were soviets set up after the February revolution?
In all the major towns and cities of Russia
What happened to decrees of the PG in regards to military affairs?
They were binding only idk they were approved by the PS
= PG did not have control of its army
What was the feeling in Russia after February?
Excitement = felt as if a new era had dawned
- Political groups felt that Russia had entered a period of real freedom
What parties were not represented in the PG in its early weeks?
The Bolsheviks and the monarchists
What was the relationship between the PG and PS like?
At the begging both were in harmony but as the year progressed the PG moved increasingly to the right while the PS increasingly to the left
What were 4 of the PG early progressive measures?
1) Recognition of TUs
2) Amnesty for political prisoners
3) 8 hour working day
4) Grating of full civil rights and religious freedoms
What was the People' Milita?
A new set of volunteer law-enforcement officers drawn from ordinary people = replaced the Okhrana
What Bolsheviks wanted to cooperate with the PG and who didn't?
- Stalin and Kamenev (felt this way about other parties too such as the Mensheviks) wanted to cooperate
- Lenin argued the Bolsheviks should not cooperate
What was accommodationism?
The idea that the Bolsheviks should accept the situation that followed the Feb R. cooperating with the PG and being prepared to work with other revolutionary parties
What did Lenin claim the February revolution had created?
A 'parliamentary-bourgeois republic'
What did the April Thesis include?
- abandon all co-operation with other parties
- work for a true revolution
- over throw PG
How did the slogan 'peace, land, bread' include the basic problems confronting Russia?
Peace = continuing war with Germany
Bread = chronic food shortages
Land = disruption in the countryside
Why did Lenin want 'all power to the soviets'?
Believed the ministers governed only in the interests of their own class:
- didn't want to end the war as brought them profits
- didn't want to supply food to the Russian peoples who they despised
- didn't want to reform land holding which guaranteed them their property
Why was the PG forced to continue fighting the war?
Needed the supplies and war-credits from the western allies it had become dependent on
What did the PG preoccupation with war prevent?
It from dealing with social and economic problems
What was the major offensive in June?
On the south-western front but failed badly
- low moral was weakened by Bolshevik agitators = encourage soldiers to disobey orders
During the offensive what did General Kornilov call for?
The PG to direct its entries to crushing political subversives at home
In summer 1917 what were the signs that the PG was loosing control?
- spread of soviets
- worker-control over factories
- widespread seizure of land by peasants
- creation of breakaway national minority governments - e.g. in Ukraine
What were the July Days?
Ministerial clashes coincided with street demonstrations
= public protest due to failure of the June offensive
How were the Bolsheviks involved in the July Days?
Came to the aid of the workers and the Kronstadt sailors
What important facts did July Days reveal?
- the opposition movement was disunited
- Bolsheviks were still far from being the dominant party
- PG still had the strength to put down an armed demonstration
What did Kerensky do after he became PM on 8th July?
Closed down Pravda and arrested many Bolshevik leaders
= Lenin fled to Finland
What did the February revolution cause the peasants to believe?
That they would soon benefit from a major land redistribution
= no such thing happened causing peasants to take law into their own hands + seized property
What was the Land Commission?
Set up by the PG with the intention of redistributing land
What was the Bolsheviks view of the peasantry?
Viewed them as 'the pack animal' of history
How did the Bolshevik policy of 'Land to the Peasant' effect the SRs?
Caused them to split, Left SRs sided with the Bolsheviks on all major issues
What was the Kornilov affair?
Kornilov informed Kerensky that he was brining his loyal troops to Petrograd to save the PG from being overthrown by socialists
= Kerensky turned against him when he realised he intended to over throw the PG and impose military rule
What part did the Bolsheviks play in the Kornilov affair?
Kerensky released them from prison and they were willing to fight against Kornilov
What stopped Kornilov's advance?
The railway workers refused to operate the trains to bring the army to Petrograd
How had the Bolsheviks gained from the Kornilov affair?
- able to present themselves as the defenders of Petrograd and the revolution
- showed the PG's political weakness and its venerability to military threat
How many Bolsheviks were there in the Moscow and Petrograd soviets by September?
They had the majority
What was 'Pre-Parliament'?
Would have had authority to advice the government before the CA - Bolsheviks walk out while the policy was being discussed
When did Lenin return from Finland?
How did Kerensky start the coup in October?
Ordered a pre-emptive strike against the Bolsheviks on 23rd October
- Bolshevik newspapers closed down and an attempted round up of leaders
How long was the October Revolution?
How did the Bolsheviks not seize power?
It fell into their hands
What was the Military Revolutionary Committee? (MRC)
Was set up by the soviets to organise the defence of Petrograd against a possible German attack or another Kornilov type assault
= one of the main reasons for the success of the rev
Why was the PG not considered worth fighting to save?
- economically incompetent and militarily incapable
- support had evaporated
- couldn't arouse genuine enthusiasm
Why did no other parties mount a challenge to the Bolsheviks?
1) had accepted the Feb rev as genuine = co-operated with the PG + willing to make a coalition
2) weakened by their support for the war
Were the Bolsheviks or Mensheviks more consistent in their Bolshevism?
In strictly theoretical terms the Mensheviks were