Flashcards in Duma Deck (28):
How was the Duma elected?
By Electoral Colleges whose representative were also elected
What could the Duma do in theory?
Could veto legislation but had no control over Council of ministers and very little over finance
When was the 1st Duma in session?
What was the composition of the 1st Duma?
- Left + moderate reps
- Peasant and ethnic reps
What were the issues and legislation of the 1st Duma?
- Right of Duma v. right of Tsar
- Angry over Fundamental Laws
Why was the 1st Duma dismissed?
Due to conflict with NII
What were the consequences of the 1st Duma?
- Stolypin's repression
- Kadet + SRs issued an appeal to defy authority
- Kadets became more moderate
When was the 2nd Duma in session?
February - June 1907
What was the composition of the 2nd Duma?
- Few more Octoberists
- SRs and SDs stronger
What were the issues and legislation of the 2nd Duma?
- Kadets cooperated with government
- Stolypin's agrarian reforms
Why was the 2nd Duma dismissed?
Due to being accused of plotting against the Tsar
What were the consequences of the 2nd Duma?
- Stolypin used article 87 to ensure more right wing reps
- Only 1/6 of the population could vote = peasants and workers virtually excluded
When was the 3rd Duma in session?
November 1907 - June 1912
What was the composition of the 3rd Duma?
- Massive shift to the right
- Bolshevik contingent
What were the issues and legislation of the 3rd Duma?
- Stolypin's land reforms
- Conflict over Western Zemstva
- Still critical of the Tsar
Why was the 3rd Duma dismissed?
Due to prorogued Stolypin's Western Zemstva bill
What were the consequences of the 3rd Duma?
- Tsarism looked to have achieved democracy
- In reality no longer representative of the people
When was the 4th Duma in session?
November 1912 - June 1914
What was the composition of the 4th Duma?
Same as the 3rd
Why was the 4th Duma dismissed?
Self-dissolved due to WW1 = showing patriotic support for the Tsar
What were the consequences of the 4th Duma?
- Reconvened in 1915
- Wanted the Tsar to create a Duma of national self-confidence = Nicholas refused
- Creation of progressive bloc
What were the Fundamental Laws 1906?
Tsar had 'supreme autocratic powers':
- Article 87 = Tsar can issue decrees in emergencies
How was the Imperial Council selected?
50% appoint by Tsar + 50% by the wealthier classes
How did the Duma form opposition?
- Kadets = wanted further political reform
- Octoborists = more conservative
- SRs and SDs
BUT most liberal intelligenca not ready for reform
When was Stolypin PM?
What were Stolypin's Agrarian reforms?
- Peasants had greater freedom of movement
- Could opt out of the Mir = encouraged to set up own farm rather than strip farm Khutor and Otrub farms
How did Stolypin use repression?
Believed in control and death of those who undermined the status quo:
- Violent repression in countryside
- Closing of TUs and newspapers