bone and joint Flashcards Preview

Pathology > bone and joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in bone and joint Deck (54):
1

these lay down osteoid

osteoblasts

2

non-mineralized matrix called:

osteoid

3

three components of long bone:

epiphysis, metaphysis, diaphysis (long)

4

epiphysis is covered by:

cartilage (joint)

5

metaphysis is where:

blood suppply comes in

6

main component of bone, length and strength:

diaphysis (it's hollow)

7

what is epiphyseal growth plate for?

cartilage laid down before become bone-->
endochondral

8

what is epiphyseal growth plate for?

cartilage laid down before become bone-->
endochondral ossification

9

predominant mineral?

Ca

10

mature osteoblasts

osteocytes

11

these remodel bone

osteoclasts

12

autosomal dominant, defect of endochondral ossification, growth of long bone retarded, normal trunk cause dwarfism

achondroplasia

13

mutation in laying down of collagen, born with multiple fractures, blue sclerae, thin skin, thin dental enamel

osteogenesis imperfecta

14

mutation in laying down of collagen, born with multiple fractures, blue sclerae (whites of eyes), thin skin, thin dental enamel

osteogenesis imperfecta

15

bacterial infection of bone

osteomyelitis

16

causes of osteomyelitis?

pyogenic cocci (staph in metaphysis-->diaphysis-->pus into epiphysis), mixed flora (drug addiction), TB

17

devitalized bone fragments cut off from blood supply (dead bone)

sequestra

18

reactive bone formed to wall off infection (laying down of new bone)

involucrum

19

bone is thin, 1/3 of women >65 yrs affected, prone to fractures

osteoporosis

20

secondary cause of osteoporosis

hormonal problems, dietary, immobilization, drugs (anticonvulsants, heparin)

21

after age __ bone loss >form

30

22

postmenopause osteoporosis in trabecular bone (vertebrae, wrist)

type 1

23

old age osteoporosis in cortical and trabecular bone of long bones (neck of femur)

type 2

24

soft bones. abnormal (not calcified), disturb of vit D or PO4 metabolism

osteomalacia

25

osteomalacia is called __ in kids

rickets

26

causes of osteomalacia

vit D, hypophosphatemia

27

deformities in rickets

bow legs, pigeon breast, growth retardation

28

symptoms of osteomalacia and rickets

muscle spasms and fractures

29

types of fractures?

simple, compound, comminuted, complete, incompete

30

incomplete also called:

greenstick

31

fracture with several fragments

comminuted

32

causes of fracture

traumatic; pathologic

33

step one of fracture healing:

hematoma fills and surrounds injured area, clotted blood seals off fracture site

34

step two of fracture healing:

acute inflammatory response, granulation tissue. new blood vessels and fibroblasts, osteoblasts start making osteoid and sprinkle Ca

35

step three of fracture healing:

realignment by osteoclasts/osteoblasts

36

what is callus?

area of healing of fracture

37

fracture treatment

immobilization, reconstruction of any gap, debridement

38

what is debridement?

get rid of necrotic tissue

39

location of osteosarcoma?

metaphysis, long bones

40

osteosarcoma common in:

young persons, males

41

degenerative joint disease-->wear and tear of articular cartilage (soft, thin, vertical clefts, surface defects)

osteoarthritis

42

what is eburnation?

denuded bone

43

what is bone degeneration called?

bone cysts

44

what is osteophyte?

new bone formation in osteoarthritis (Heberden's nodes)

45

clinical features of osteoarthritis?

pain/stiffness, crepitus, swelling/warmth, Heberden's nodes

46

what is crepitus?

grating sensation on movement

47

systemic autoimmune disease affecting synovial joints, chronic inflammation

rheumatoid arthritis

48

rheumatoid arthritis more common in:

women

49

exudation of fluid and inflammatory cells into joint

synovitis

50

what is pannus?

ingrowth of vessels + synovial cells-->granulation tissue (inflamed synovium)

51

what is synovium?

lubrication, protection of joints

52

what does pannus do?

secrete lytic enzymes that destroy cartilage

53

immobilized joints referred to as:

ankylosis

54

complications of rheumatoid?

joint deformities, ulnar drift, lung fibrosis