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Flashcards in heart Deck (47):
1

vast majority of Cardio disease

atherosclerosis

2

what is hallmark of atherosclerosis?

endothelial injury

3

is injury-->ischemia reversible or irreversible?

reversible

4

types of ischemia

tolerable, critical, lethal

5

symptoms of coronary stenosis

angina pectoris, asymptomatic, arrhythmia, sudden death, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure

6

two types of angina pectoris?

unstable and stable

7

pain of ischemia relieved by:

rest, nitroglycerine (vasodilator)

8

complications of CAD:

MI, sclerosis, thrombosis, aneurysm

9

what is aneurysm?

weakening of wall causes dilation and rupture

10

clinical diagnosis of MI

cardiac biomarkers, ECG, cardiac catheterization, post mortem

11

clinical symptoms of MI

choking/pressure (left side), pass out, sweat, shock, weak pulse

12

most common cause of death from acute MI

ventricular fibrillation (arrhythmia) -->v-fib arrest

13

complications of MI

sudden death (25% of cases), heart failure, arrhythmia, cardiogenic shock, multisystem organ failure, weakening of arterial wal, aneurysm, valvular regurgitation

14

80% MI result from:

thrombus obstructed narrowed artery

15

what is artery of sudden death?

Left anterior descending

16

lateral infarction starts in:

left circumflex artery

17

the widow maker

anterior infarction

18

posterior infarction

right coronary artery obstruction

19

how diagnose MI?

consider med history, clinical presentation, 12 lead ECG, biomarkers (troponin)

20

myoglobin has molecular weight of:

16000 daltons

21

biomarkers of MI?

troponin, myoglobin, creatine kinase

22

what is creatine kinase?

dimer with wt of 86000 daltons

23

what kinds of dimer for CK in heart?

MM and MB

24

complications of myocardial infarction

mural thrombus, ventricular aneurysm, myocardial rupture, cardiac tamponade (pericardial effusion)

25

treatment?

clot busting drugs, percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG

26

what is CABG?

coronary artery bypass graft

27

what is pericardial effusion?

leakage of blood into pericardial space

28

what is PCI?

percutaneous coronary intervention; balloon tipped catheter system (^ lumen diameter, restore BF)

29

examples of clot busting drugs?

tPA, urokinase, streptokinase

30

CABG involve ___vein, __ artery

saphenous; internal mammary

31

what is congestive heart failure?

can't pump all blood out of heart, back pressure to all organs behind failed chamber

32

left heart failure cause ___ congestion

pulmonary

33

right heart failure cause ___ congestion

peripheral

34

heart failure cause ___ which results in dyspnoea

edema

35

what is dyspnoea?

shortness of breath on exertion, constant, nocturnal

36

people who operate cardio-pulmonary bypass machine

perfusionist

37

what is RHD?

rheumatic heart disease related to strep infections

38

RHD caused by:

antibodies to strep cross-react with cardiac antigens

39

what is endocarditis?

inflammation of valves on left side of heart

40

what are vegetations?

deposition of inflammatory cells, fibrin, and platelets

41

what causes valve deformation?

healing by fibrous scarring

42

valve insufficiency causes:

regurgitation (ventricles become dilated or hypertrophic)

43

reflux of blood from ventricle to atrium during systole

mitral valve regurgitation

44

causes back flow of blood into left ventricle during diastole

aortic regurgitation

45

valve stenosis results in:

stagnation of blood into LA-->hypertension-->LV hypertophy

46

non modifiable risk factors for CAD

^ age, male, heredity

47

modifiable risk factors for CAD

hyperlipidemia, hypertension, physical inactive, smoke, obese, stress, diabetes