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Flashcards in liver and gallbladder Deck (35)
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1

Three major types gallstones

cholesterol, pigment, mixed

2

risk factors for cholesterol stones:

fat, female, forty, fertile, flatulent

3

pain of gallstones is ___

peristaltic

4

pain of inflammation is ____

continuous ache

5

complications of gall stones?

obstruction of bile ducts, perforations of gallbladder

6

liver weighs about ___ grams

1200

7

symptoms of liver damage is ___

non specific

8

jaundice first appears :

eyes, creases of palms

9

jaundice is total serum bilirubin>____

35-51

10

pre-hepatic jaundice associated with:

hemolytic anemia

11

post hepatic jaundice associated with:

obstruction (gall stones, cancer in pancreas)

12

clinical features of acute liver disease:

jaundice, right upper quadrant pain, symptoms of liver failure, itching

13

why itching in acute liver disease>

bile duct compressed so bile salts go to blood and deposit in skin

14

chronic liver disease clinical features

asymptomatic, vague complaints, chronic elevation of liver enzymes in lab tests

15

what is hepatocellular?

damage to liver cells, transaminases leak out

16

what is cholestatic?

obstruction to bile flow, alkaline phosphatase released

17

most common reasons for liver disease?

drugs, alcohol, viruses thru sex or transfusion

18

<6mth is ___ damage

panlobular

19

>6mth is ___ damage

periportal

20

this enzyme is elevated in chronic alcohol abuse

gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)

21

most important predictor of outcome in acute is ____

INR (prothrombin time)

22

most important predictor of outcome in chronic is ___

underlying cause

23

clinical effects of viral hepatitis divided into these phases:

preicteric and icteric

24

no cure for this type of hep

hep C

25

accumulation of fats in liver

steatosis

26

fatty liver mostly caused by:

alcohol

27

alcoholic liver disease characterized by appearance of:

mallory hyaline, neutrophils

28

similar changes outside of alcohol called:

NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis)

29

NASH caused by:

obesity, rapid wt loss, diabetes, drugs

30

shrunken, hardened, bumpy liver referred to as

cirrhosis