Flashcards in gi tract Deck (43):
^ in intracranial pressure causes
what is esophageal irritation?
what is salivary gland secretions?:
what is hemetemesis
blood in vomit
when body tenses up to ready for extrusion
what kind of epithelium in lining of esophagus?
stratified squamous (well protected)
causes of infectious esophagitis?
viral, fungal, herpes, candida albicans
heartburn and waterbrash characteristic of:
what cause esophagitis?
infection, reflux of gastric juice, exogenous irritants and chem
reflux esophagitis usually secondary to:
what is barrett's change?
esophagus change from squamous to columnar (secretes mucous) as protective mechanism-->dysplasia-->cancer
characteristics of gastritis?
nausea, vomit, hemetemesis, upper ab pain
acute gastritis caused by:
chronic gastritis caused by:
peptic ulcer most common in:
common cause peptic ulcer?
stress, helicobacter, NSAIDs, Zollinger Ellison syndrome
what does peptic ulcer look like?
clean, sharply punched out (diff from cancer which looks dirty)
clinical features of duodenal ulcer:
pain 1-2 hr after eat, pain alleviated by alkali food, melena and iron loss
complications of peptic ulcer
hemorrage (destroy BV), penetration (pancreas), perforation (body cavity), scarring (less distension of stomach)
carcinoma of stomach more common in:
Japan, Chile (nitrosamines, smoked fish, atrophic gastritis)
4 types of stomach cancer
polypoid, fungating, ulcerated, diffusely infiltrating
Diarrhea is characteristic of:
2 types IBD?
Crohn's and colitis
small bowel diarrhea?
large volume, watery
large bowel diarrhea?
small volume, with blood/mucous/leukocytes
frequent passage of loose stool
what to do to treat traveller's diarrhea?
antibiotics, probiotics, caution (peptobismal helps)
sites of involvement in Crohn's
terminal ileum, anywhere from mouth to anus
sites of involvement in colitis
rectum, extends proximally up to ileocecal valve (progresses backwards)
pattern of involvement in crohn's is ___ while UC is ___
extent of inflammation in bowel wall is ____ in Crohn's, ___ in UC
full thickness ; mucosal only
complications of crohn's
malabsorption, fistulae and sinuses, perforation/peritonitis, scarring and intestinal obstruction (fecal incontinence, ab pain)
complications of UC
bleeding, megacolon (paralysed), cancer
what is ectopic pregnancy?
implantation in fallopian tubes (misdiagnose this as appendicitis)
what happens in acute appendicitis?
blockage prevent venous return, cause edema. + bacterial growth, shut off arterial supply-->gangrene
what is appendicitis caused by?
obstruction (secretions, fecal material, worms), colitis
pain in appendicitis starts in ___ and spreads to___
navel; right lower quadrant (McBurney's point)
commonest feature of colon cancer
polyps in GIT (rectal bleeding)
non-neoplastic polyps caused by:
causes of neoplastic colonic polyps?
sporadic (localized proliferation), familial
pathologic appearance of colon cancer, right side:
secum-->grow like cauliflower, fungating and ulcerating lesions, lots of mucin, diarrhea; symptoms late
path appearance of colon cancer, left side:
rectum-->circumferential (napkin-ring), constricting, constipation, flattened stools, rectal bleeding; symptoms early