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Flashcards in gi tract Deck (43):
1

^ in intracranial pressure causes

projectile vomiting

2

what is esophageal irritation?

heartburn

3

what is salivary gland secretions?:

waterbrash

4

what is hemetemesis

blood in vomit

5

when body tenses up to ready for extrusion

retching

6

what kind of epithelium in lining of esophagus?

stratified squamous (well protected)

7

causes of infectious esophagitis?

viral, fungal, herpes, candida albicans

8

heartburn and waterbrash characteristic of:

esophagitis

9

what cause esophagitis?

infection, reflux of gastric juice, exogenous irritants and chem

10

reflux esophagitis usually secondary to:

hiatal hernia

11

what is barrett's change?

esophagus change from squamous to columnar (secretes mucous) as protective mechanism-->dysplasia-->cancer

12

characteristics of gastritis?

nausea, vomit, hemetemesis, upper ab pain

13

acute gastritis caused by:

alcohol, aspirin

14

chronic gastritis caused by:

helicobacter pylori

15

peptic ulcer most common in:

duodenum

16

common cause peptic ulcer?

stress, helicobacter, NSAIDs, Zollinger Ellison syndrome

17

what does peptic ulcer look like?

clean, sharply punched out (diff from cancer which looks dirty)

18

clinical features of duodenal ulcer:

pain 1-2 hr after eat, pain alleviated by alkali food, melena and iron loss

19

complications of peptic ulcer

hemorrage (destroy BV), penetration (pancreas), perforation (body cavity), scarring (less distension of stomach)

20

carcinoma of stomach more common in:

Japan, Chile (nitrosamines, smoked fish, atrophic gastritis)

21

4 types of stomach cancer

polypoid, fungating, ulcerated, diffusely infiltrating

22

Diarrhea is characteristic of:

infections, IBD

23

2 types IBD?

Crohn's and colitis

24

small bowel diarrhea?

large volume, watery

25

large bowel diarrhea?

small volume, with blood/mucous/leukocytes

26

frequent passage of loose stool

diarrhea

27

what to do to treat traveller's diarrhea?

antibiotics, probiotics, caution (peptobismal helps)

28

sites of involvement in Crohn's

terminal ileum, anywhere from mouth to anus

29

sites of involvement in colitis

rectum, extends proximally up to ileocecal valve (progresses backwards)

30

pattern of involvement in crohn's is ___ while UC is ___

discontinuous; continuous

31

extent of inflammation in bowel wall is ____ in Crohn's, ___ in UC

full thickness ; mucosal only

32

complications of crohn's

malabsorption, fistulae and sinuses, perforation/peritonitis, scarring and intestinal obstruction (fecal incontinence, ab pain)

33

complications of UC

bleeding, megacolon (paralysed), cancer

34

what is ectopic pregnancy?

implantation in fallopian tubes (misdiagnose this as appendicitis)

35

what happens in acute appendicitis?

blockage prevent venous return, cause edema. + bacterial growth, shut off arterial supply-->gangrene

36

what is appendicitis caused by?

obstruction (secretions, fecal material, worms), colitis

37

pain in appendicitis starts in ___ and spreads to___

navel; right lower quadrant (McBurney's point)

38

commonest feature of colon cancer

polyps in GIT (rectal bleeding)

39

non-neoplastic polyps caused by:

inflammation

40

causes of neoplastic colonic polyps?

sporadic (localized proliferation), familial

41

pathologic appearance of colon cancer, right side:

secum-->grow like cauliflower, fungating and ulcerating lesions, lots of mucin, diarrhea; symptoms late

42

path appearance of colon cancer, left side:

rectum-->circumferential (napkin-ring), constricting, constipation, flattened stools, rectal bleeding; symptoms early

43

survival depends on ___ staging system

Duke's