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Flashcards in inflammation Deck (100):
1

2 causes of disease?

congenital; acquired

2

two types of congenital disease

inherited, intrauterine lesions

3

types of acquired

inflamation, neoplasia, immunologic, vascular, endocrine, degeneration, iatrogenic

4

illness caused by healthcare provider/treatment

iatrogenic disease

5

what is inflammation?

response of living tissues to irritation/injury

6

causes of inflammation?

infection, chem agents, phys agents, trauma, chronic irritation

7

cardinal signs of inflammation

calor (heat), rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) , function laesa (disturbed function)

8

first response to injury :

hemodynamic (vascular) changes

9

what is vascular response?

mech stim-->nerves-->smooth muscle-->precapillary arterioles -->short vasoconstriction-->vasodilation (flooding of blood)

10

what is hyperemia?

^ blood flow to capillaries (vasodilate)-->congestion

11

RBC sludge is called

rouleaux

12

WBC attached to endothelium after ___ called

marginalization; pavementing

13

adhesion accomplished by:

surface adhesion molecules

14

why vessel wall changes?

^pressure, slowing of circulation, adhesion, soluble mediators released

15

2 classes of substances that mediate inflammation

plasma-derived, cell-derived

16

example of biogenic amine, preformed mediator

histamine

17

protein formed in plasma from Hageman activation

Bradykinin

18

mediator of inflam. that consists of several proteins that are activated in cascade

complement system

19

activation of complement cascade can occur thru 2 paths:

classical, alternate

20

classical path activated by :

antigen-antibody complex

21

alternate path activated by ___

bacterial endotoxins, fungi, etc

22

both paths converge to lead to form of ___

membrane attack complex

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coat bacteria to be more susceptible to being engulfed by phagocytes

opsonins

24

derived from phospholipids of cell mem thru phospholipase

arachidonic acid derivatives

25

two metabol paths for arachidonic acid derivatives

lipoxygenase; cycloxygenase

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lipoxygenase path-->?

leukotrienes

27

cycloxygenase path-->?

prostacyclin, thromboxanes

28

aspirin associated with __ path

cycloxygenase

29

leakage of fluid from vessel into interstitial spaces in emigration of leukocytes

transudation

30

transudate is __ in protein but has ___ cells

^ ; few

31

transudation causes ___

edema

32

what are PMNs?

polymorphonuclear leukocyte (acute--first to emigrate)

33

after PMN, see:

monocytes, eosinophils, macrophage, lymphocyte, plasma cells

34

emigration of leukocytes from BV occurs in these phases:

adhesion of PMN to endothelial; insertion of cyto pseudopods; passage thru basement mem; ameboid mvmt away from vessel to cause of inflamation

35

what is chemotaxis?

active mvmt of PMN along [ ] gradient

36

derived from bacteria or tissues destroyed by inflammation

chemoattractant

37

when PMNs reach bacteria/chemotactic substance, this happens

phagocytosis (scavenge, lose mobility)

38

attachment of PMN to bacteria wall facilitated by

immunoglobulin

39

most numerous WBC in circulating blood (60-70%)

PMNs

40

fever is involved with ___

interleukin 1 (endogenous pyrogen)

41

mononuclear cells derived from blood monocyte, larger than PMNs

macrophages

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cells primarily involved w/ antibody production

lymphocytes

43

fragmentous cells without nucleus w/ granules

platelets

44

4 clinical parameters to classify inflammation

duration, etiology, location, morphology

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inflammation that lasts for a few hours to a few days

acute

46

inflammation characterized by persistence of causative agents

chronic

47

4 classifications of infections:

bacteria, viral, protozoal, fungal

48

example of localized skin infection

boil (furuncle)

49

ex. of systemic inflammation

sepsis, systemic lupus

50

typical signs of inflammation found on:

skin, eyes, oral mucosa, genital organs

51

used to inspect the abdominal cavity

laparoscope

52

most terms are formed adding the suffix:

"itis"

53

type of inflammation typical of viral infections, mild, involving exudation of serum in early stage of most inflammation

serous

54

this type of inflammation may be organized and form scar tissue, indicating more severe inflammation, seen in lots of bacterial infections

fibrinous inflammation

55

ex. of fibrinous inflammation?

strep throat

56

this type of inflammation is characterized by pus, usually caused bacterially

purulent

57

closed pocket of purulent inflammatory exudate (pus) that must be drained

abscess

58

when abscesses rupture, form :

sinus or fistula

59

in chronic abscess, the wall of cavity is composed of a ____

capsule (fibrotic granulation tissue)

60

cavity usually occupied previously by abscess that drains thru tract to surface of body

sinus

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channel formed tween 2 pre existing cavities or hollow organs and the surface of body

fistula

62

elevated body temp exceeds 37C, typical response to acute inflammation

fever

63

fever is caused by:

prostaglandins released by endogenous pyroens (IL-1 and TNF)

64

endogenous pyrogens are released by:

leukocytes or macrophages during inflammation

65

other non-specific symptoms of inflammation are called:

constitutional symptoms

66

constitutional symptoms include;

fatigue, weakness, depression, lack of appetite, general pain, exhaustion

67

3 classifications of cells according to ability to proliferate:

labile, stable, permanent

68

what are "labile" cells?

continuously dividing/mitotic cells throughout entire life

69

what are "stable" cells?

quiescent, facultative mitotic cells that need stim to div

70

what are "permanent" cells?

nondividing, post-mitotic cells that don't have way to proliferate EVER

71

ex. of labile cells?

stem, basal layer of skin, mucosa of viscera

72

ex. of stable cells?

parenchymal organ (liver or kidney)

73

ex. of permanent cells?

neurons, myocardial cells

74

leukocytes and macrophages act on these connective tissue cells during healing:

epithelium, myofibroblasts, angioblasts, fibroblasts, collagen

75

these cells secrete matrix substances and are able to contract like muscle cells

myofibroblasts

76

these cells are precursors of BVs that provide a route for scavenger cells and influx of blood

angioblasts

77

these cells produce most of the xtracell matrix

fibroblasts

78

scars are formed by ___ + ____

fibronectin; collagen

79

ex of healing by first intention:

closed surgical wounds

80

ex of healing by secondary intention

unclosed wounds, large tissue defect, foreign bodies, infected wounds

81

complications of wound healing?

site, mech factor, size, infection, nutrition, circulatory status, age

82

nutr. and metabolic factors in healing

proteins, vitamin C (speeds up), excess cortisol (slows)

83

diabetes, example of ___wounds

ischemic (hypoxic)

84

this complication happens in diabetics and those taking steroids

deficient scar formation

85

decrease in tensile strength results in:

dehiscence

86

excess scar formation is called:

keloids (beyond boundaries, are discolored)

87

have segmented nuclei, usually composed of 3 lobes, also called neutrophils

PMN leukocytes

88

represent primary body defense system against bacteria

PMN leukocytes

89

also called histiocytes , typical of chronic inflammation

macrophages

90

these cells participate in forming granulomas

macrophages

91

essential for blood clot and are cyto fragments of megakaryocytes

platelets

92

hyperemia caused by :

dilation of arterioles

93

release of histamine at site of inflammation cause:

^ in permeability

94

aspirin inhibit:

prostaglandins

95

granulomas contain all cells except:

PMNs

96

most common cause of delayed healing of skin wound caused by traffic accident

infection

97

what transient event is an initial reaction to neurogenic and chem stim in area of inflammation?

constriction (followed by dilation)

98

where are the endothelial cells that react most prominently to mediators of inflammation?

venule

99

rich in proteins and not many cells

transudate

100

rich in proteins and many cells

exudate