Flashcards in hemodynamics Deck (37):
___% of body weight is water
what is the transcellular third space
body cavity spaces (pericardial, peritoneal, pleural, joint)
^ interstitial fluid
fluid accumulation which are low protein, few cells
causes of transudates
^ fluid vol, ^ hydrostatic pressure, v plasma proteins, lymph blockage
what causes ^ fluid volume?
kidney failure (retention of sodium)
what causes ^ hydrostatic pressure within the veins?
prolonged standing, generalized (heart failure)
what causes v plasma proteins?
malnutrition, ^ protein loss nephrotic syndrome
what causes lymphatic blockage?
worms (microorganisms--elephantiasis), cancer cells
bad generalized edema is called:
generalized edema in fetus:
blood escaped from blood vessels
leaked blood enough to form a mass
worst sites for hemorrhage?
brain, heart, eye, pit.. gland
transformation of fluid blood into solid aggregate of cells and fibrin in vascular lumen
free particles/masses (emboli) floating in blood stream that aren't normal
blood vessel wall damage, blood flow abnormalities, blood component alterations
irregular swirling layers of red cells, fibrin, platelets, and a few white cells is called;
lines of Zahn (tells you that this is a thrombus)
characteristics of antemortem thrombi?
attached, hard and crumbly, lines of zahn
postmortem clot characteristics?
non-adhesive, soft, chicken fat/currant jelly appearance
most common reason for DIC?
systemic infection, and mestatic cancer
what are fates of thrombi?
lysis, organization, recanalization, embolization
what is organization?
ingrowth of vessels and inflammatory cells
clinical effects of thrombi?
occlude lumen of vessel, narrow lumen
examples of liquid emboli?
amniotic fluid, fat
ex. of solid emboli:
prolonged sitting can trigger:
necrosis caused by blocked bloood vessels
pale (white) infarcts result from:
arterial occlusion (no blood)
red infarcts result from :
venous occlusion ; restoration of blood to tissue already necrotic
hypoperfusion of tissues leading to organ dysfunction
reduced organ perfusion leads to:
1) organ dysfunction, 2) secondary mediators of shock produced that exacerbate shock, 3) metabolic acidosis
what are causes of shock?
pump failure, loss of fluid from circulation, loss of peripheral vascular tone
what causes loss of peripheral vascular tone?
pooling of blood in peripheral vessels (anaphylactic shock, bacterial sepsis)
3 stages of shock?
compensated shock, progressive (decompensated), irreversible
what happens in compensated shock?
blood shunted away from skin/gut/kidney to brain and heart-->cold, clammy, v urine