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Flashcards in hemodynamics Deck (37):
1

___% of body weight is water

60

2

what is the transcellular third space

body cavity spaces (pericardial, peritoneal, pleural, joint)

3

^ interstitial fluid

edema

4

fluid accumulation which are low protein, few cells

transudates

5

causes of transudates

^ fluid vol, ^ hydrostatic pressure, v plasma proteins, lymph blockage

6

what causes ^ fluid volume?

kidney failure (retention of sodium)

7

what causes ^ hydrostatic pressure within the veins?

prolonged standing, generalized (heart failure)

8

what causes v plasma proteins?

malnutrition, ^ protein loss nephrotic syndrome

9

what causes lymphatic blockage?

worms (microorganisms--elephantiasis), cancer cells

10

bad generalized edema is called:

anasarca

11

generalized edema in fetus:

hydrops fetalis

12

hemorrhage

blood escaped from blood vessels

13

hematoma

leaked blood enough to form a mass

14

worst sites for hemorrhage?

brain, heart, eye, pit.. gland

15

thrombosis

transformation of fluid blood into solid aggregate of cells and fibrin in vascular lumen

16

embolism

free particles/masses (emboli) floating in blood stream that aren't normal

17

Virchow's triad?

blood vessel wall damage, blood flow abnormalities, blood component alterations

18

irregular swirling layers of red cells, fibrin, platelets, and a few white cells is called;

lines of Zahn (tells you that this is a thrombus)

19

characteristics of antemortem thrombi?

attached, hard and crumbly, lines of zahn

20

postmortem clot characteristics?

non-adhesive, soft, chicken fat/currant jelly appearance

21

most common reason for DIC?

systemic infection, and mestatic cancer

22

what are fates of thrombi?

lysis, organization, recanalization, embolization

23

what is organization?

ingrowth of vessels and inflammatory cells

24

clinical effects of thrombi?

occlude lumen of vessel, narrow lumen

25

examples of liquid emboli?

amniotic fluid, fat

26

ex. of solid emboli:

cholesterol, tumor

27

prolonged sitting can trigger:

pulmonary embolism

28

necrosis caused by blocked bloood vessels

infarction

29

pale (white) infarcts result from:

arterial occlusion (no blood)

30

red infarcts result from :

venous occlusion ; restoration of blood to tissue already necrotic

31

hypoperfusion of tissues leading to organ dysfunction

shock

32

reduced organ perfusion leads to:

1) organ dysfunction, 2) secondary mediators of shock produced that exacerbate shock, 3) metabolic acidosis

33

what are causes of shock?

pump failure, loss of fluid from circulation, loss of peripheral vascular tone

34

what causes loss of peripheral vascular tone?

pooling of blood in peripheral vessels (anaphylactic shock, bacterial sepsis)

35

3 stages of shock?

compensated shock, progressive (decompensated), irreversible

36

what happens in compensated shock?

blood shunted away from skin/gut/kidney to brain and heart-->cold, clammy, v urine

37

what is progressive shock?

end-organ damage, lactic acidosis and release of cytokines, low BP and altered consciousness