Flashcards in Urinary tract Deck (39):
how many nephrons in kidney?
two common kidney disease?
renal agenesis/solitary horse shoe kidney; polyscystic kidney disease
autosomal dominant, defective polycysteine, cysts by dilated tubules, aneurysm in brain
polycystic kidney disease
causes of glomerular disease?
immune mediated, metabolic, circulatory
shock, heart failure
glom/tubular disease in kidney
inflammation, hypertension, hematuria, ^ serum creatinine
edema, hyperlipidemia, proteinuria
how is edema caused?
albumin is gone by proteinuria, oncotic pressure cause xs fluid in Interstitial space
lipoid nephrosis is also referred to as:
minimal change disease
most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children?
lipoid nephrosis is characterized by:
fusion of foot processes of podocytes
what is filtration barrier?
1) endothelial layer 2) glomerular basement membrane 3) podocytes and slit diaphragm
most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults?
membranous nephropathy characterized by:
thickened basement membrane and granular immune complexes
why is there no immune response in membranous nephropathy?
GBM don't like immunoglobulins so it basically strangles/eats them so no inflammation occurs
mechanism of acute glomerulonephritis?
Ag-Ab complexes (strep) formed and trapped in GBM-->complexes activate complement-->attract inflamm cells and overcrowd-->filtration doesn't occur properly, damage basement membrane-->urine murky brown
characterized by exudate in glomerular space?
what happens in goodpasture's syndrome?
antibodies directly attach GBM, make holes, blood leaks out and collect in glom space, compress tubes
what happens in ANCA?
anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies damage neutrophil proteins, attach to endothelial cells and then attach to neutrophils which release enzymes and damage glomerulus
bacterial infection of kidney:
when mesangium gets irritated and expands, these nodules occur
acute pyelonephritis 2 paths of spread:
what is ascending path?
chronic pyelonephritis is characterized by:
destruction of renal parenchyma (scarring)
Nephroblastoma involves gene mutation of :
Willm's tumour gene
Nephroblastoma is most common in:
children <4yrs old
85% of cancers of kidney is:
renal cell carcinoma (clear cell type)
4 groups of kidney stones
calcium, struvite, uric acid, cystine
these stones associated with infection
these stones are 75% of all kidney stones, small size
these stones are often quiescent and seen in ppl with gout/hyperuricemia
least common stones
symptoms of renal stones:
hematuria, renal colic
inflammation of bladder wall
how to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy?
inhibitors of 5-alphareductase
sits at base of bladder