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Flashcards in Urinary tract Deck (39):
1

how many nephrons in kidney?

2.5 million

2

two common kidney disease?

renal agenesis/solitary horse shoe kidney; polyscystic kidney disease

3

autosomal dominant, defective polycysteine, cysts by dilated tubules, aneurysm in brain

polycystic kidney disease

4

causes of glomerular disease?

immune mediated, metabolic, circulatory

5

prerenal characteristics:

shock, heart failure

6

renal characteristics:

glom/tubular disease in kidney

7

post-renal characteristics:

urinary obstruction

8

nephritic?

inflammation, hypertension, hematuria, ^ serum creatinine

9

nephrotic?

edema, hyperlipidemia, proteinuria

10

how is edema caused?

albumin is gone by proteinuria, oncotic pressure cause xs fluid in Interstitial space

11

lipoid nephrosis is also referred to as:

minimal change disease

12

most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children?

lipoid nephrosis

13

lipoid nephrosis is characterized by:

fusion of foot processes of podocytes

14

what is filtration barrier?

1) endothelial layer 2) glomerular basement membrane 3) podocytes and slit diaphragm

15

most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults?

membranous nephropathy

16

membranous nephropathy characterized by:

thickened basement membrane and granular immune complexes

17

why is there no immune response in membranous nephropathy?

GBM don't like immunoglobulins so it basically strangles/eats them so no inflammation occurs

18

mechanism of acute glomerulonephritis?

Ag-Ab complexes (strep) formed and trapped in GBM-->complexes activate complement-->attract inflamm cells and overcrowd-->filtration doesn't occur properly, damage basement membrane-->urine murky brown

19

characterized by exudate in glomerular space?

crescentic glomerulonephritis

20

what happens in goodpasture's syndrome?

antibodies directly attach GBM, make holes, blood leaks out and collect in glom space, compress tubes

21

what happens in ANCA?

anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies damage neutrophil proteins, attach to endothelial cells and then attach to neutrophils which release enzymes and damage glomerulus

22

bacterial infection of kidney:

pyelonephritis

23

when mesangium gets irritated and expands, these nodules occur

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules

24

acute pyelonephritis 2 paths of spread:

hematogenous, ascending

25

what is ascending path?

urethra/bladder

26

chronic pyelonephritis is characterized by:

destruction of renal parenchyma (scarring)

27

Nephroblastoma involves gene mutation of :

Willm's tumour gene

28

Nephroblastoma is most common in:

children <4yrs old

29

85% of cancers of kidney is:

renal cell carcinoma (clear cell type)

30

4 groups of kidney stones

calcium, struvite, uric acid, cystine

31

these stones associated with infection

struvite

32

these stones are 75% of all kidney stones, small size

calcium

33

these stones are often quiescent and seen in ppl with gout/hyperuricemia

uric acid

34

least common stones

cystine

35

symptoms of renal stones:

hematuria, renal colic

36

inflammation of bladder wall

cystitis

37

how to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy?

inhibitors of 5-alphareductase

38

sits at base of bladder

prostate

39

two zones of prostate:

transition and peripheral