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RUSVM Bacteriology Gram Negatives > Bordetella > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bordetella Deck (51):
1

What family does Bordetella belong to? (Taxonomically)

Family Alcaligenaceae

2

Bordetella Aerobe/Non-aerobe

Aerobic

3

Bordetella target cells

Ciliated respiratory epithelium

4

Bordetella Gram _____? Shape?

Pleomorphic, Gram negative coccobacilli

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5

Bordetella Motile/Non-Motile?

Some motile by petrichous flagella (B. bronchiseptica, B. avium)

6

Bordetella Which species has a capsule?

B. bronchiseptica has capsule

7

Bordetella Virulence factors

Adhesins!!!! Capsule Cell Wall (LPS & OMP Brk) Iron acquisition T3SS 4 Exotoxins

8

How do Bordetella species derive energy?

Oxidation of amino acids

9

How many Bordetella species are described? What determines their variation?

8 described species Important pathogens Variability - serological, hemolytic, toxicity

10

Which three Bordatella species are very closely related?

B. pertussis B. parapertussis B. bronchiseptica

11

What does B. pertussis cause in humans?

Whooping cough

12

What does B. parapertussis cause in humans? Lambs?

Whooping cough in humans Pneumonia in lambs

13

What diseases does B. bronchiseptica cause?

Porcine atrophic rhinitis Canine & feline kennel cough** Bronchopneumonia (many spp)

14

What diseases does B. avium cause?

Rhinotracheitis of birds -Mainly turkey -***TURKEY CORYZA**

15

Bordetella Name the Adhesins

BvgAS regulon Fimbriae FHA - Filamentous hemagglutin Prn - Pertactin Tcf - Tracheal colonization factor LPS - cell wall

16

Bordetella BvgAS regulon

Expression due to environmental cues -Responsible for phase variation ---Avirulent at 25C, but activates at 37C

17

Bordetella Fimbriae function

Adhere to **epithelial cells of respiratory tract!**

18

Bordetella FHA function

Filamentous hemagglutinin -Adherence to respiratory tract cells, macrophages -***Hemagglutination***

19

Bordetella Prn function

Prn- Pertactin Adhesive OMP (outer membrane protein) Adheres to respiratory tract cells and macrophages

20

Bordetella Tcf function

Adherence to respiratory tract

21

Bordetella Cell wall virulence

LPS (endotoxin, anti-complement, anti-phagocytic, pro-inflammatory (CD-14-cytokines)) OMP Brk (Bordetella resistance to killing) (Anti-complement)

22

Bordetella Iron acquisition strategies

Alcaligin (Secreted hydroxamate-type siderophore) Enterobactin (Enterobacteriaceae siderophore) OMP (BhuR-Bordetella heme uptake receptors)

23

Bordetella Secretion system

T3SS -Apoptosis -Loss of epithelial integrity -Evasion of immune system

24

What are the four exotoxins of Bordetella?

Tracheal cytotoxin Dermonecrotic toxin Adenylyl cyclase toxin Pertusses toxin (only active in B. pertussis)

25

Bordetella Tracheal cytotoxin

Damage ciliated epithelial cells Macrophages release IL-1, Pro-inflammatory

26

Bordetella Dermonecrotic toxin

Affects actin cytoskeleton Inhibits osteoblast differentiation in bone tissues (atrophic rhinitis!)

27

Bordetella Adenylyl cyclase toxin

Pore-forming protein (RTX repeats) Deregulates ion/fluid flow Reduces leukocyte phagocytic capacity Hemolytic

28

Bordetella Pertussis toxin

Only active in B. pertussis Loss of fluids & ions Interference with phagocytosis

29

Bordetella Reservoir (Specify for B. bronchiseptica & B. avium)

Ciliated respiratory tract tissue B. bronchiseptica - common, MANY species carry it B. avium- infected fowl (turkey coryza)

30

Bordetella Transmission

DIRECT CONTACT mainly Mammals-airborne Turkeys- water & litter

31

Bordetella Pathogenesis

Activation of BvgAS regulon--> Adherence & multiplication IN host cells--> Bordetella escape immune system--> Depression of respiratory tract clearance, Secondary complications, pneumonia

32

Bordetella Pathogenesis difference in pigs

In pigs: Nasal irritation that opens doors to P. multicoda Pmt!!

33

Bordetella Pathology

Destruction of ciliated respiratory epithelium Suppurative (rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis) May lead to suppurative pneumonia & air sacculitis

34

Bordetella Disease pattern Dogs

Young, non-immune dogs Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis "Kennel Cough" Pneumonia - usually in dogs with distemper Usually resolves in less than a month

35

Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis is also known as _______

Kennel Cough

36

Major co-infectious agents of Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis

Kennel Cough Major co-infections= B. bronchiseptica, canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenoviruses 1&2, canine herpesvirus Others- canine distemper, Reovirus 1,2,3, Mycoplasma spp.

37

Bordetella Disease pattern Dogs & cats

Cats- commonly associated with herpesvirus, calicivirus, Mycoplasma, Clamydiophila Coughing not common

38

Bordetella Disease Pattern Swine

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39

What disease do these pictures indicate:

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Atrophic Rhinitis, swine

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40

Bordetella Disease Pattern Poultry

B. avium Needs differentiation from Alcaligenes faecalis Highly contagious in young poults **Turkey Coryza!!!***

41

Turkey Coryza

Bordetella avium Tracheobronchitis, sinusitis, airsacculitis, nasal exudate, conjunctivitis, tracheal rales & dyspnea High morbidity, low mortality (unless secondary infections) Contaminated environment!

42

What disease does this picture indicate?

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Bordetella avium Flattening of tracheal rings

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43

Bordetella Disease Patterns Lab animals

Rabbit bordetellosis - may appear similar to Snuffles (P. multocida) B. bronchiseptica - alone are asymptomatic With P. multicoda--> bronchopneumonia

44

Bordetella Immunological aspects

Can depress Cell Mediated response by dendritic cells Antibodies= some anti-adhesin protection Live attenuated vaccines and bacterin-toxoids show some protection Should also vaccinate against synergistic pathogens

45

Bordetella Culture procedure What is collected for culture?

-Nasal swabs -Sediments of transtracheal washes -Tracheal swabs Agar culture, PCR, Serology, Biochemical tests

46

Bordetella What type of agar used?

Blood and MacConkey Agar Recall: strict aerobes derive energy from amino acid oxidation. Are Non-lactose fermenters. Most are hemolytic.

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47

Bordetella Describe the colonies on blood agar

Small-medium, grey Zone of beta hemolysis under colonies (Only seen if colony removed from agar surface)

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48

Bordetella Biochemical aspects (catalase/oxidase/etc)

Catalase and Oxidase Positive No carb fermentation Use citrate as carbon source B. bronchiseptica also uses nitrate and splits urea Slide hemagglutination test

49

Bordetella Treatment & Control Progressive atrophic rhinitis

Not treatable in advance cases Mantenance of aged sow herd w/low carrier state Disinfection & cleanup of farrowing houses & nurseries Vaccination Antimicrobials, also as prophylactic (sulfonamides)

50

Bordetella Treatment & Control Canine tracheobronchitis

"Kennel Cough!" Vaccination Kennel fumigation Ventilation Antimicrobials controversial -Only necessary if pneumonia is diagnosed. Use tetracyclines)

51

Bordetella Treatment & Control Poultry

Vaccination Antimicrobials - Intermediate results, Tetracyclines, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin