What family does Bordetella belong to? (Taxonomically)
Bordetella target cells
Ciliated respiratory epithelium
Bordetella Gram _____? Shape?
Pleomorphic, Gram negative coccobacilli
Some motile by petrichous flagella (B. bronchiseptica, B. avium)
Bordetella Which species has a capsule?
B. bronchiseptica has capsule
Bordetella Virulence factors
Adhesins!!!! Capsule Cell Wall (LPS & OMP Brk) Iron acquisition T3SS 4 Exotoxins
How do Bordetella species derive energy?
Oxidation of amino acids
How many Bordetella species are described? What determines their variation?
8 described species Important pathogens Variability - serological, hemolytic, toxicity
Which three Bordatella species are very closely related?
B. pertussis B. parapertussis B. bronchiseptica
What does B. pertussis cause in humans?
What does B. parapertussis cause in humans? Lambs?
Whooping cough in humans Pneumonia in lambs
What diseases does B. bronchiseptica cause?
Porcine atrophic rhinitis Canine & feline kennel cough** Bronchopneumonia (many spp)
What diseases does B. avium cause?
Rhinotracheitis of birds -Mainly turkey -***TURKEY CORYZA**
Bordetella Name the Adhesins
BvgAS regulon Fimbriae FHA - Filamentous hemagglutin Prn - Pertactin Tcf - Tracheal colonization factor LPS - cell wall
Bordetella BvgAS regulon
Expression due to environmental cues -Responsible for phase variation ---Avirulent at 25C, but activates at 37C
Bordetella Fimbriae function
Adhere to **epithelial cells of respiratory tract!**
Bordetella FHA function
Filamentous hemagglutinin -Adherence to respiratory tract cells, macrophages -***Hemagglutination***
Bordetella Prn function
Prn- Pertactin Adhesive OMP (outer membrane protein) Adheres to respiratory tract cells and macrophages
Bordetella Tcf function
Adherence to respiratory tract
Bordetella Cell wall virulence
LPS (endotoxin, anti-complement, anti-phagocytic, pro-inflammatory (CD-14-cytokines)) OMP Brk (Bordetella resistance to killing) (Anti-complement)
Bordetella Iron acquisition strategies
Alcaligin (Secreted hydroxamate-type siderophore) Enterobactin (Enterobacteriaceae siderophore) OMP (BhuR-Bordetella heme uptake receptors)
Bordetella Secretion system
T3SS -Apoptosis -Loss of epithelial integrity -Evasion of immune system
What are the four exotoxins of Bordetella?
Tracheal cytotoxin Dermonecrotic toxin Adenylyl cyclase toxin Pertusses toxin (only active in B. pertussis)
Bordetella Tracheal cytotoxin
Damage ciliated epithelial cells Macrophages release IL-1, Pro-inflammatory
Bordetella Dermonecrotic toxin
Affects actin cytoskeleton Inhibits osteoblast differentiation in bone tissues (atrophic rhinitis!)
Bordetella Adenylyl cyclase toxin
Pore-forming protein (RTX repeats) Deregulates ion/fluid flow Reduces leukocyte phagocytic capacity Hemolytic
Bordetella Pertussis toxin
Only active in B. pertussis Loss of fluids & ions Interference with phagocytosis
Bordetella Reservoir (Specify for B. bronchiseptica & B. avium)
Ciliated respiratory tract tissue B. bronchiseptica - common, MANY species carry it B. avium- infected fowl (turkey coryza)
DIRECT CONTACT mainly Mammals-airborne Turkeys- water & litter
Activation of BvgAS regulon--> Adherence & multiplication IN host cells--> Bordetella escape immune system--> Depression of respiratory tract clearance, Secondary complications, pneumonia
Bordetella Pathogenesis difference in pigs
In pigs: Nasal irritation that opens doors to P. multicoda Pmt!!
Destruction of ciliated respiratory epithelium Suppurative (rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis) May lead to suppurative pneumonia & air sacculitis
Bordetella Disease pattern Dogs
Young, non-immune dogs Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis "Kennel Cough" Pneumonia - usually in dogs with distemper Usually resolves in less than a month
Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis is also known as _______
Major co-infectious agents of Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis
Kennel Cough Major co-infections= B. bronchiseptica, canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenoviruses 1&2, canine herpesvirus Others- canine distemper, Reovirus 1,2,3, Mycoplasma spp.
Bordetella Disease pattern Dogs & cats
Cats- commonly associated with herpesvirus, calicivirus, Mycoplasma, Clamydiophila Coughing not common
Bordetella Disease Pattern Swine
What disease do these pictures indicate:
Atrophic Rhinitis, swine
Bordetella Disease Pattern Poultry
B. avium Needs differentiation from Alcaligenes faecalis Highly contagious in young poults **Turkey Coryza!!!***
Bordetella avium Tracheobronchitis, sinusitis, airsacculitis, nasal exudate, conjunctivitis, tracheal rales & dyspnea High morbidity, low mortality (unless secondary infections) Contaminated environment!
What disease does this picture indicate?
Bordetella avium Flattening of tracheal rings
Bordetella Disease Patterns Lab animals
Rabbit bordetellosis - may appear similar to Snuffles (P. multocida) B. bronchiseptica - alone are asymptomatic With P. multicoda--> bronchopneumonia
Bordetella Immunological aspects
Can depress Cell Mediated response by dendritic cells Antibodies= some anti-adhesin protection Live attenuated vaccines and bacterin-toxoids show some protection Should also vaccinate against synergistic pathogens
Bordetella Culture procedure What is collected for culture?
-Nasal swabs -Sediments of transtracheal washes -Tracheal swabs Agar culture, PCR, Serology, Biochemical tests
Bordetella What type of agar used?
Blood and MacConkey Agar Recall: strict aerobes derive energy from amino acid oxidation. Are Non-lactose fermenters. Most are hemolytic.
Bordetella Describe the colonies on blood agar
Small-medium, grey Zone of beta hemolysis under colonies (Only seen if colony removed from agar surface)
Bordetella Biochemical aspects (catalase/oxidase/etc)
Catalase and Oxidase Positive No carb fermentation Use citrate as carbon source B. bronchiseptica also uses nitrate and splits urea Slide hemagglutination test
Bordetella Treatment & Control Progressive atrophic rhinitis
Not treatable in advance cases Mantenance of aged sow herd w/low carrier state Disinfection & cleanup of farrowing houses & nurseries Vaccination Antimicrobials, also as prophylactic (sulfonamides)
Bordetella Treatment & Control Canine tracheobronchitis
"Kennel Cough!" Vaccination Kennel fumigation Ventilation Antimicrobials controversial -Only necessary if pneumonia is diagnosed. Use tetracyclines)
Bordetella Treatment & Control Poultry
Vaccination Antimicrobials - Intermediate results, Tetracyclines, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin