Leptospira Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Bacteriology Gram Negatives > Leptospira > Flashcards

Flashcards in Leptospira Deck (62):
1

Leptospira Gram___? Shape?

Gram Negative Classic spirochetes Diverse, many variations/serotypes

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2

Leptospira Motile/Non-motile?

Motile

3

Leptospira Distribution? Reportable?

Worldwide. REPORTABLE in USA

4

Leptospira Disease Patterns Hallmark sign

Late-term abortion

5

Leptospira Disease Patterns Dogs

Septicemia - Hepatic & Renal Disease

6

Leptospira - Disease Patterns Cattle & Swine

Septicemia in young Abortion in adults

7

Leptospira - Disease Patterns Horses

Abortion & uveitis (moon blindness)

8

Leptospira - Disease Patterns California Sea Lions

Acute septicemia

9

Leptospira - Disease Patterns Humans

Acute febrile disease

10

How is Leptospira best visualized on microscopy?

Dark-field or phase-contrast microscopy

11

Leptospira Cell wall description

LPS with feeble endotoxin

12

Leptospira Stable/Labile in environment? What kills it?

Weak/Labile Killed by drying, freezing, heat, detergents, bile salts, acidic environment

13

Leptospira Where can it persist in environment?

Moist, temperate environment @neutral or slighly alkaline pH

14

Leptospira What type of agar does it grow on?

It doesn't! GOTCHA! No agar! Usually grown in fluid or semi-solid media

15

Leptospira Oxidase Pos/Neg?

Oxidase positive

16

Leptospira Catalase Pos/Neg?

Catalase positive

17

Leptospira Urease & Lipase Pos/Neg?

Some are lipase & urease positive

18

Leptospira How is advanced identification established?

Serology (PCR still in development

19

Leptospira Reservoir

Tubule of Mammalian kidneys! Especially rodents! Wild carnivores, birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates too

20

Leptospira Transmission

Urine contamination! **Bodies of water** Fluid/fomite/feed contacts skin/mucous membranes. Milk in acutely infected cows

21

Leptospira Pathogenesis

Spirochetes enter bloodstream--> Colonize liver and/or kidney (also muscle, eyes, meninges)

22

Leptospira Clinical Signs/Pathology

>Nonsuppurative meningitis, hemorrhages >L. serovar Pomona in Cattle (intravascular hemolysis) >Autoimmune diseases, Icterus (liver damage & blood destruction) >Acute, subacute, chronic nephritis

23

Leptospira Dogs Most important serovars

**Canicola** Iceterohemorrhagiae Grippotyphosa

24

Leptospira- Dogs Acute form -Describe & is it fatal?

Puppies! Fever, hemorrhaging mucus membranes, epistaxis, blood-stained feces Fatal within days

25

Leptospira-Dogs Icteric form

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Less conspicuous hemorrhage Prominent Icterus Renal casts & leukocytes in urine

26

Leptospira- Dogs Uremic form

*Kidneys* with or without other two forms Acute & rapidly fatal GI upset, uremic breath, GI ulcerations

27

Leptospira - Dogs Name the three forms

Acute Form Icteric Form Uremic Form

28

What is this dog infected with?

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Acute Leptospirosis! Likely Icteric form

29

Name the organ, name the pathogen, describe the lesion,

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Lung -Dog Leptospirosis Petechiae scattered throughout lung

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30

Name the organ, name the pathogen, describe the lesion

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Kidney - Dog Leptospirosis Pale mottled to striated cortex consistent with tubulointerstitial nephritis

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31

Leptospira - Cattle Most common manifestation? Exact cause?

Abortion! Mostly late-term Fetal death NOT placental infection

32

Leptospira - Cattle Serovar Hardjo Disease nickname

"Weak Calf Syndrome"

33

Leptospira - Cattle Serovar Hardjo Clinical signs

"Weak Calf Syndrome" In utero infection Repro failure & infertility Chronic infection in kidneys-->urine shedding

34

Leptospira - Cattle Serovar Pomona Acute/Chronic? Most affected?

Acute leptospirosis in calves, some adults

35

Leptospira - Cattle Serovar Pomona Clinical signs - Fatality rate

Fever, hemoglobinuria, icterus, anemia Fatality rate = 5-15%

36

Leptospira - Cattle Serovars Grippotyphosa, Icterohemorrhagiae, Canicola

May cause bovine infections, certain parts of world

37

Leptospira- Swine Serovars affecting them:

Pomona Icterohemorrhagiae Canicola Taravossi Bratislava Muenchen

38

Leptospira- Swine Disease Pattern

Septicemia with icterus and hemorrhage -Usually piglets

39

Leptospira- Horse Serovars affecting them:

Pomona Grippotyphosa Icterohemorrhagiae

40

Leptospira-Horse Disease Pattern

Fever Mild Icterus Abortion

41

Leptospira- Horse Effect on eye:

Icteric conjunctiva

Equine recurrent uveitis -Periodic ophthalmia -Moon blindness -Equine recurrent iridocyclitis

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42

Leptospira-California Sea Lion Serovar?

Pomona

43

Leptospira-California Sea Lion Disease Pattern?

Periodic mortalities

44

Leptospira-Humans Serovars?

Susceptible to all serovars

45

Leptospira-Humans Disease Pattern

Fever Icterus Muscular pain Rashes Non-suppurative meningitis

46

Leptospira-Humans What disease pattern is associated with serovar Icterohemorrhagiae

Fatal liver or renal disease

47

What immunoglobulins are associated with recovery from a Leptospira infection?

Circulating IgM and IgG

48

Leptospira- Do recovered animals have lasting immunity? Any exceptions?

Yes. Very effective and serovar-specific immunity (Except multiple Hardjo abortions in cows reported)

49

Leptospira What species do serovar-specific vaccines exist for?

Dogs Cattle Swine Humans --Temporary immunity-Boosters

50

Leptospira - Lab Diagnosis Live samples collected

Not milk! -Blood *Urine* -CSF -Uterine fluids -Placental cotyledons

51

Leptospira-Lab diagnosis Necropsy samples collected

*Kidneys*, liver, spleen, lung, brain, eye

52

Leptospira- Direct Exam Stains used?

-PCR -Wet mount stains: Darkfield IFA Silver Stains

53

Leptospira- Culture medium

May be attempted in EMJH medium

54

Leptospira- Intraperitoneal inoculations

May be attempted Kidneys examined Serological assays

55

Leptospira-Serology -Test used?

Common/Best for Dx Microscopic agglutination test

56

Leptospira- Serology What samples are best for Microscopic agglutination test?

Paired samples preferable with increasing titer

57

Leptospira-Other diagnostic tests?

Complement fixation Other agglutination tests ELISA

58

Leptospira- Treatment Antibiotic resistance?

Generally low resistance High susceptibility

59

Leptospira- Treatment Antibiotics used?

Penicillin Streptomycin Tetracyclin Chloramphenicol Erythromycin

60

Leptospira-Treatment When is the most effective time to treat?

Must be started early in infection or prophylactically

61

Leptospira-Treatment What develops in cattle with sustained infection?

Biofilms

62

Leptospira- Vaccination?

Prevents clinical disease -Infection and shedding still can occur