Borrelia Gram___? Shape?
Gram Negative- stain poorly
Borrelia Name the 3 animal pathogen species
B. burgdorferi sensu lato
What disease does Borrelia anserina affect
What pathogen causes Fowl Spirochetosis?
What species does Borrelia theileri affect
Cattle (Occasionally sheep & horses)
What disease does Borrelia sensu lato cause?
What species does Borrelia sensu lato affect?
Lyme Disease, 3 genospecies
Dogs - Humans - Horses (few others)
Describe Borrelia chromosomes
Multiple linear & cirucular plasmids
What aspects cause Borrelia to need specialized media for culture?
-Slow-growing -Microaerophilic -Ferment glucose
Tick vectors! -Transmit bacteria during feeding, through bite wound
-Short-term, other arthropods
-Placental - Milk - Urine
What animals suffer from Fowl Spirochetosis?
-Turkeys - Geese - Ducks - Pheasants - Pigeons - Canaries - other wild birds
What are the clinical signs of Fowl Spirochetosis
-Fever - Depression - Anorexia - Cyanosis - Green Diarrhea - Paralysis - Anemia - Hepato/splenomegaly - Hemorrhage
What is the mortality rate of Fowl Spirochetosis (B. anserina)
increased in younger birds
Borrelia anserina Distribution
Not common in US
What species of tick is the main vector and reservoir?
Soft tick (Argas persicus)
Describe the appearance of the liver, as a result of B. anserina (Fowl Spirochetosis)
Liver often enlarged, mottled, with necroses of various size & marginal infarctions
B. anserina (Fowl Spirochetosis) Treatment
Antimicrobials (Penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol ...etc)
- Bacterin vaccines
- Control the parasites!!
Borrelia theileri Distribution
Cattle -Africa & Australia
What does Borrelia theileri cause in cattle?
Mild febrile anemia
What is the treatment for Borrelia theileri?
Tetracycline works if needed (unclear pathogenesis)
-Control the Parasites!
Lyme Borreliosis What species of Borrelia cause this?
B. burgdorferi sensu lato:
-B. burgdorferi sensu stricto
What months are Lyme Borreliosis most prevalent?
May - October
What species of ticks spread Lyme Borreliosis
-Ixodes scapularis -Ixodes pacificus (Sylvatic cycle- Deer)
Lyme Borreliosis in humans
-Most infections subclinical
-Begins with skin lesion (Erythema migrans)
-Eventually neural, cardiac, and arthritic complaints (weeks-months later)
Lyme Borreliosis Pathogenesis in humans
Lyme Borreliosis Clinical signs in Dogs
-Polyarthritis* -Fever* -Anorexia*
Lyme Borreliosis In cats
Lyme Borreliosis Clinical signs in Horses
-Ocular & neural involvement
Lyme Borreliosis Clinical signs in cattle
Similar to horses:
-Ocular & neural involvement
Lyme Borreliosis Diagnosis
-Culture is difficult
-Serology (ELISA, IFA, Western) (Antibody titers)
Lyme Borreliosis Treatment
-Tetracycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, peniccilin
Lyme Borreliosis Immunological Factors/Prevention
Humoral = essential for protection
- Vaccines available
(Bacterin, OspA against B. burgdorferi in tick gut)