Where is Taylorella often found?
Taylorella Gram negative/positive?
Taylorella Anaerobe/Non-Aerobe? Shape?
Facultative Anaerobic Coccobacillus
What causes contagious equine metritis (CEM)?
Taylorella equigenitalis A notifiable disease in many countries
What disease does Taylorella equigenitalis cause in horses?
CEM - Contagious equine metritis
What strain do donkeys have?
T. asinigenitalis Normal male donkeys Non pathogenic, few disease cases Differentiate from T equigenitalis!
What are the signs of CEM?
Contagious Equine Metritis: -Acute, suppurative, self-limiting disease of uterus of mares
What effects does CEM have on the mare?
-Temporary sterility, highly communicable, followed by long-term asymptomatic carriage
Do stallions develop signs of CEM disease?
No, they are asymptomatic carriers
Taylorella: Virulence Factors
Capsule Cell Wall
Carbohydrates Anti-phagocytic & anti-complement (macrophages)
Taylorella: Cell Wall description
Typical Gram Negative LPS - endotoxin, O-repeats, proinflammatory Shares antigens with Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Brucella
Which 4 bacteria share antigens?
Taylorella, Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Brucella
Not remarkable, Good response to antibiotics
Antigenically homogeneous -SOME differences found using PCR or PFGE
Parasite exclusively of equine genital tract. Note: Antibodies found in cattle & human but no infection
Taylorella: Where is it endemic?
Europe Has been found in Japan, Australia, North America
Taylorella: How is it transmitted?
Sexually! Dirty, slutty horses Sometimes virgins & newborns have it Some contaminated instruments Maybe in utero or during parturition
What is the pathogenesis of Taylorella?
Not well described Purulent endometritis within days of exposure -Variable amounts of exudate
How is CEM resolved?
Uterine infection subsides spontaneously within several weeks -ONLY effect is FAILURE TO CONCEIVE from that breeding session -Complete endometrial repair -No lasting breeding impairment -FEW abortions -No fevor or signs of illness
What disease is this?
CEM!! Taylorella equigenitalis! Gross
Is CEM reportable?
YES!! REPORTABLE IN USA
What anatomical locations harbor T. equigenitalis on horses?
Persistance is frequent in endemic areas Mares: clitoral fossa & sinuses Stallions: prepuce, urethra, urethral fossa, sinus
What would cause CEM or T. equigenitalis to disseminate?
Breeding operations Movement & use of infected animals
Do recovered animals show resistance to Taylorella?
Yes. Resistance present in recovered animals
Describe Antibody production in response to Taylorella
Antibodies present in serum & vaginal mucus -Stallions do not mount an Antibody response
How do bacterins help in defense against the dark arts of Taylorella?
Bacterins do not prevent infection Do reduce severity
What would you use to diagnose Taylorella with microscopy
Gram Stain the uterine exudate -Definitive diagnosis based on special media culture or serological methods or PCR
What is the proper technique for collecting Taylorella for culture?
Swab --> Transport medium --> Agar
What type of transport medium should be used for swabs of Taylorella?
Amies charcoal transport medium
What type of agar should Taylorella be grown on?
Chocolage Eugon agar (Horse Blood) Hematin Agar Chocolate Agar
How should Taylorella be properly cultured on agar?
For 1 week Streptomycin, clindamycin or trimethoprim for selective media 5-10% CO2 at 37C
Is Taylorella Oxidase positive or negative?
Is Taylorella Catalase positive or negative?
Is Taylorella phosphatase positive or negative?
Describe the biochemical aspects of Taylorella: Oxidase/Catalase/Phosphatase
Is any acid produced from carbohydrates with Taylorella?
No acid is produced from carbohydrates
What agar is pictured below?
Taylorella on hematin agar
Describe the Treatment and Control of Taylorella in non-endemic countries
Uterine infusions of disinfectancts & systemic antibiotic treatment (Questionable, 2% chlorhexidine + Nitrofurazone) -Sample & culture the prepuce, urethral sinus, fossa glandis of stallions -Stallions bred to 2 uninfected mares (then sample clitoral fossa & sinuses 3x) -Close exam of imported animals (some countries require obliterating clitoral sinuses of imported mares)
What should you sample from males suspected with Taylorella?
Prepuce, urethral sinus & fossa glandis
Describe the treatment and control of Taylorella in endemic countries
Mandatory Veterinary examination Negative culture of all animals intended for breeding Supervision of movement of horses