Taylorella Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Bacteriology Gram Negatives > Taylorella > Flashcards

Flashcards in Taylorella Deck (41):
1

Where is Taylorella often found?

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Horses assholes

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2

Taylorella Gram negative/positive?

Gram Negative

3

Taylorella Anaerobe/Non-Aerobe? Shape?

Facultative Anaerobic Coccobacillus

4

What causes contagious equine metritis (CEM)?

Taylorella equigenitalis A notifiable disease in many countries

5

What disease does Taylorella equigenitalis cause in horses?

CEM - Contagious equine metritis

6

What strain do donkeys have?

T. asinigenitalis Normal male donkeys Non pathogenic, few disease cases Differentiate from T equigenitalis!

7

What are the signs of CEM?

Contagious Equine Metritis: -Acute, suppurative, self-limiting disease of uterus of mares

8

What effects does CEM have on the mare?

-Temporary sterility, highly communicable, followed by long-term asymptomatic carriage

9

Do stallions develop signs of CEM disease?

No, they are asymptomatic carriers

10

Taylorella: Virulence Factors

Capsule Cell Wall

11

Capsule functions

Carbohydrates Anti-phagocytic & anti-complement (macrophages)

12

Taylorella: Cell Wall description

Typical Gram Negative LPS - endotoxin, O-repeats, proinflammatory Shares antigens with Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Brucella

13

Which 4 bacteria share antigens?

Taylorella, Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Brucella

14

Taylorella: Resistance?

Not remarkable, Good response to antibiotics

15

Taylorella: Variability?

Antigenically homogeneous -SOME differences found using PCR or PFGE

16

Taylorella: Reservoir?

Parasite exclusively of equine genital tract. Note: Antibodies found in cattle & human but no infection

17

Taylorella: Where is it endemic?

Europe Has been found in Japan, Australia, North America

18

Taylorella: How is it transmitted?

Sexually! Dirty, slutty horses Sometimes virgins & newborns have it Some contaminated instruments Maybe in utero or during parturition

19

What is the pathogenesis of Taylorella?

Not well described Purulent endometritis within days of exposure -Variable amounts of exudate

20

How is CEM resolved?

Uterine infection subsides spontaneously within several weeks -ONLY effect is FAILURE TO CONCEIVE from that breeding session -Complete endometrial repair -No lasting breeding impairment -FEW abortions -No fevor or signs of illness

21

What disease is this?

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CEM!! Taylorella equigenitalis! Gross

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22

Is CEM reportable?

YES!! REPORTABLE IN USA

23

What anatomical locations harbor T. equigenitalis on horses?

Persistance is frequent in endemic areas Mares: clitoral fossa & sinuses Stallions: prepuce, urethra, urethral fossa, sinus

24

What would cause CEM or T. equigenitalis to disseminate?

Breeding operations Movement & use of infected animals

25

Do recovered animals show resistance to Taylorella?

Yes. Resistance present in recovered animals

26

Describe Antibody production in response to Taylorella

Antibodies present in serum & vaginal mucus -Stallions do not mount an Antibody response

27

How do bacterins help in defense against the dark arts of Taylorella?

Bacterins do not prevent infection Do reduce severity

28

What would you use to diagnose Taylorella with microscopy

Gram Stain the uterine exudate -Definitive diagnosis based on special media culture or serological methods or PCR

29

What is the proper technique for collecting Taylorella for culture?

Swab --> Transport medium --> Agar

30

What type of transport medium should be used for swabs of Taylorella?

Amies charcoal transport medium

31

What type of agar should Taylorella be grown on?

Chocolage Eugon agar (Horse Blood) Hematin Agar Chocolate Agar

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32

How should Taylorella be properly cultured on agar?

For 1 week Streptomycin, clindamycin or trimethoprim for selective media 5-10% CO2 at 37C

33

Is Taylorella Oxidase positive or negative?

Positive

34

Is Taylorella Catalase positive or negative?

Positive

35

Is Taylorella phosphatase positive or negative?

Positive

36

Describe the biochemical aspects of Taylorella: Oxidase/Catalase/Phosphatase

All Positive!

37

Is any acid produced from carbohydrates with Taylorella?

No acid is produced from carbohydrates

38

What agar is pictured below?

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Taylorella on hematin agar

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39

Describe the Treatment and Control of Taylorella in non-endemic countries

Uterine infusions of disinfectancts & systemic antibiotic treatment (Questionable, 2% chlorhexidine + Nitrofurazone) -Sample & culture the prepuce, urethral sinus, fossa glandis of stallions -Stallions bred to 2 uninfected mares (then sample clitoral fossa & sinuses 3x) -Close exam of imported animals (some countries require obliterating clitoral sinuses of imported mares)

40

What should you sample from males suspected with Taylorella?

Prepuce, urethral sinus & fossa glandis

41

Describe the treatment and control of Taylorella in endemic countries

Mandatory Veterinary examination Negative culture of all animals intended for breeding Supervision of movement of horses