Burkholderia Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Bacteriology Gram Negatives > Burkholderia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Burkholderia Deck (70):
1

Burkholderia: Gram ___? Shape?

Gram Negative, Rods

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2

Burkholderia: Catalase result?

Catalase Positive

3

Burkholderia: Aerobe/Non-aerobe?

Aerobic

4

Burkholderia: Taxonomy

Used to be in genus Pseudomonas. Oxidizes carbohydrates -24+ species

5

Burkholderia: Pathogenic strains:

Animals: B. mallei, B. pseudomallei Compromised humans: B. cepacia, B gladioli

6

Burkholderia: General Disease Pattern

Pyogranulomatous Diseases -Few organisms needed to cause disease

7

Burkholderia: Pathogen classification (by CDC & USDA/APHIS)

Category B! REPORTABLE!! Biosafety level 3 Aerosol infection possible

8

Burkholderia mallei -Dangerous uses

REPORTABLE!! Bioweaponized! WWII Germans spread to debilitate enemy horses

9

Burkholderia mallei -Disease Pattern

"Glanders" REPORTABLE!

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10

Burkholderia mallei -Species affected

Glanders in: *Equids*, *Felines, dogs, goats, camels, sheep, *humans* -Dead-end hosts

11

Burkholderia mallei What species is particularly susceptible?

Cats (Guinea pigs & hamsters in labs too)

12

Burkholderia mallei Main geographic location?

Asia & South America

13

Burkholderia mallei Characteristic signs?

Nodules & ulcers in respiratory tract or on skin -Systemic pyogranulomatous diseases vary in acuteness & severity

14

Burkholderia mallei Cellular products of medical interest?

Capsule (anti-complement/ anti-phagocytosis) Cell Wall (LPS) Miscellaneous products

15

Burkholderia mallei Miscellaneous products

-Quorum sensing -Type 3 & 4 secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS) -Proteases, lipases, phospholipase C

16

Burkholderia mallei Reservoir

-*Equidae*- True parasite (die outside w/in 2 weeks) -Respiratory tract or skin lesions

17

Burkholderia mallei Common reservoir site in males

Glanderous orchitis common in males (Inflammation of one or both testicles)

18

Burkholderia mallei Transmission

*Ingestion* (feed/water) -Fomites -Inhalation -Wounds

19

Burkholderia mallei Pathogenesis

Primary lesion @ point of entry (pharynx, skin) --> Spreads by blood & lymphatics --> Nodular lesions in: Lymph nodes, lungs, spleen, liver, nasal septum, skin (cutaneous glanders = "farcy")

20

Burkholderia mallei General Glanders description

Usually chronic, disseminated, debilitating disease

21

Burkholderia mallei Cutaneous glanders = ____?

Farcy

22

Burkholderia mallei Pathology

Suppurative & Granulomatous lesions

23

Burkholderia mallei Pathology Suppurative lesion description

Basic nodular lesion, made up initially of neutrophils, fibrin, red cells

24

Burkholderia mallei Pathology Granulomatous lesion description

Central necrotic area becomes surrounded by epithelioid, giant cells & lymphocytes embedded in granulation tissue

25

Burkholderia mallei: Glanders Acute Infection

Fever - Nasal Discharge - Lymphadenitis Of head & neck with swelling along upper respiratory tract --Usually ends fatally in 2 weeks--

26

Burkholderia mallei: Glanders Chronic Infection

Common in horses IF signs are present they include: Fever - Persistant respiratory problems - Skin abscesses (Farcy) - nodular induration (sclerosis/hardening) of cranial lymph nodes

27

Burkholderia mallei: Glanders Humans!

ZOONOTIC! -Traced to an ill horse usually -Acute / Chronic -50% mortality before antimicrobials

28

What are these pictures of?

Glanders!

29

Burkholderia pseudomallei Diseases

REPORTABLE!!! Melioidosis and pseudoglanders

30

Burkholderia pseudomallei "The Great Imitator" Disease Description

Pyogranulomatous diseases, usually disseminate REPORTABLE

31

Burkholderia pseudomallei Intracellular/Extracellular?

Facultative intracellular rod

32

Burkholderia pseudomallei Saprophyte/ Parasite? -Reservoir-

Saprophyte! *Unlike B. mallei!* Wet environments: endosymbiot of amoeba living in environment. Swampy terrain or rice paddies

33

Burkholderia pseudomallei Motile/Non-Motile?

Motile by Flagella! **Different than B. Mallei*

34

Name Differences between B. mallei and B. pseudomallei

B. Mallei: Non-Motile - obligate parasite - grows slower - does not oxidize lactose - No growth at 42C B. pseudomallei: Motile - saprophyte - grows faster - oxidizes lactose - Grows at 42C -

35

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis General

Similar to Glanders with wider host range

36

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis Species Affected

-Mainly Sheep & goats -Severe in rodents (tropical) -Avian -Fish -Reptiles

37

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis in Humans

Range from subclinical to rapidly FATAL

38

Burkholderia pseudomallei Cellular products of interest

Adhesins - Adherence Capsule - Protection Cell Wall - LPS Miscellaneous products

39

Burkholderia pseudomallei Adhesins What do they bind to?

-Adheres to amoebic throphozoites & phagocytes -Flagellin aids

40

Burkholderia pseudomallei Miscellaneous Products

T3SS, T4SS Pathogenicity Island (unknown effector functions) Proteases, Lipases, Phospholipase C

41

Burkholderia pseudomallei Reservoir

-Soil & water (amoeba) -Mainly tropics, also Europe, Asia, North America -Increased disease incidence with heavy rainfall

42

Burkholderia pseudomallei Transmission

Ingestion Wound infection Airborne Arthropod bites (+/-)

43

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis Systemic disease description

Chronic nodular or purulent inflammatory diseases -Any tissue -Pyogranulomatous

44

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis Systemic disease in humans

Whitmore's Disease -asymptomatic to overwhelming sepsis -Pneumonia, benign, acute-chronic, "Vietnamese Time Bomb"

45

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis Human disease nickname

Vietnamese Time Bomb -Still present in veterans

46

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis Dog presentation

Febrile disease with localized suppurative foci

47

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis Equine

Mimics "Glanders" Pseudoglanders

48

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis Cattle

Acute or chronic Localize in lungs, joints, uterus

49

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis Sheep

Arthritis and lymphadenitis

50

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis Goats

Loss of condition, respiratory, CNS disturbances, arthritis, mastitis

51

Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis Swine

Loss of condition, respiratory & CNS disturbances, arthritis, mastitis, abortion, diarrhea

52

Burkholderia pseudomallei Lab Dx Classification? Submitted to what labs?

BSL-3 Submit isolates to reference laboratories

53

Lab Dx What stains can you use with Burkholderia pseudomallei?

Giemsa Methylene Blue Wright's Gram

54

What samples should be used for lab diagnostics for Burkholderia pseudomallei?

Nodular contents (swab, aspirates)

55

What type of agar should Burkholderia pseudomallei be grown on?

Blood Glycerol Glycerol-potato Chocolate MacConkey (some)

56

What grows faster, B. pseudomallei or B. mallei?

B. pseudomallei faster! <48hr

57

What percentage NaCl should Burkholderia pseudomallei be grown on?

Burkholderia pseudomallei grows on 2% NaCl

58

Does Burkholderia pseudomallei oxidize lactose?

Yes! Oxidizes lactose UNLIKE B. mallei and P. aeuruginosa

59

What temperature can Burkholderia pseudomallei grow at but B. mallei cannot?

42C B. pseudomallai and P aeruginosa can grow at 42C but B. mallei cannot

60

What medium helps detect Burkholderia pseudomallei in mixed infections?

Ashdown's selective medium

61

What species are used for in vivo laboratory infections?

Guinea pigs & hamsters -Highly susceptible

62

What type of agar is demonstrated below? How long and what temp should Burkholderia pseudomallei be grown at?

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Pseudomonas cepacia "PC agar" -72 hours at 30C

63

What type of agar is demonstrated below?

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MacConkey Agar Note- B. pseudomallei oxidizes the lactose

64

What serological tests are useful in diagnosing Burkholderia pseudomallei?

IFA, complement fixation, ELISA Indirect hemagglutination most common, lacks specificity (and always PCR for molecular Dx)

65

What tests are done on horses coming into the USA?

Complement fixation = official test Intradermal palpebral mallein test (detects Cell mediated hypersensitivity, indicated infection)

66

What are the immunological aspects of Burkholderia pseudomallei?

Humoral & CMI Recovered are not protected No commercial vaccines (though successful in horses & zoo animals)

67

How is Glanders (B. mallei) controlled in endemic areas?

Testing suspect clinical cases Screening apparently normal animals Destroying reactors Communal feeding & watering discouraged

68

How is Glanders (B. mallei) controlled/ treated in outbreaks?

All contaminated bedding & footstuffs should be burned or buried

69

Should you treat equids with Glanders? (B. mallei)

TREATING EQUIDS IS DISCOURAGED!!! -Same antibiotics as humans -Positives to Mallein-test are destroyed

70

How is Meilioidosis (B. pseudomallei) treated and controlled?

No effective prevention -Contact with water and soil too common Surgically drain abscesses & antimicrobial therapy Treatment must be in early course of disease -Highly resistant, Fluoroquinolones & tetracyclines are choice -No commercial vaccines for Glanders of Melioidosis