Helicobacter Gram___? Shape?
Gram negative Spiral-shaped or curved
Helicobacter- Original classification
Helicobacter- Associated with what signs in all species?
GI tract disease
Helicobacter pylori Human disease pattern
Persistent gastritis Peptic ulcer disease Gastric adenocarcinoma (?) Gastric mucosal-associated lymphoma (?)
Helicobacter Disease range in animals
Asymptomatic to Gastritis to Cancer
Helicobacter Virulence Factors Name them
Flagella Urease Adhesins LPS CagPAI Vac CDT
Helicobacter Virulence Flagella
Motility for penetration of mucus Adherence to gastric epithelia
Helicobacter Virulence Urease
Hydrolyzes urea to ammonium **Ammonium neutralizes gastric acids** Associated with inflammation
Helicobacter Virulence Adhesins
"Saba and Baba" SabA- Sialic acid-binding adhesin BabA - Blood group antigen-binding adhesin
Helicobacter Virulence LPS
Usual Endotoxin, pro-inflammatory cytokines, O-repeats=anticomplement
Helicobacter Virulence Cag PAI Codes for what?
Cytotoxin associated gene pathogenicity island Codes for T4SS Allows CagA protein into host cells
Helicobacter Virulence Vac
Vacuolating Cytotoxin -Disrupts epithelial barrier -Pro-inflammatory
Helicobacter Virulence CDT
Cytolethal Distending Toxin -Similar to that from C. jejuni
Helicobacter - Culture conditions Aerobe/Non-aerobe
Microaerophilic (Not aerobic)
Helicobacter - Culture conditions Optimal growth temp
Helicobacter - Culture Colony description
Slow-growing, flat, non-pigmented, non-hemolytic colonies.
Helicobacter - Culture conditions Fastidious?
Yes! Needs selective media
Helicobacter - Culture conditions - Selective media
Vancomycin Amphotericin Trimethoprim Cefsulodin Lysed horse blood
**Gastric mucus layer** Many animals
What percentage of dogs and cats are infected with Helicobacter spp?
How many slaughtered pigs are infected with Helicobacter suis?
Helicobacter Zoonotic potential
Some evidence, not huge risk
Not perfectly understood -Alters GI physiology w/Urease -Adjusts to gastric environment & colonizes -Chronic inflammation
Helicobacter Pathological changes
Gastric & Hepatic
Helicobacter - Pathology of Stomach
Hyperplasia Reduction of mucus Degeneration of glands Necrosis Variable inflammation
Helicobacter -Pathology of liver
Inflammatory and necrotizing lesions
Helicobacter - Lab Dx Smears/Stains
Of gastric mucosa Difficult/not impossible to identify this way
Helicobacter- Lab diagnostic methods
Stained gastric mucosa smears Urease tests Culture is difficult PCR/Western Blot/ FISH
What is the FISH diagnostic test?
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
Helicobacter Treatment theory
Controversial, most infections subclinical -Resistance could develop quickly
Helicobacter Treatment drugs
Combination therapies effective: Amoxicillin & Metronidazole Amoxicillin & clarithromycin Bismuth subsalicylate, omeprazole &/or famotidine for clinical gastric infections
Alkaline Phosphatase pos/neg?
Alkaline Phosphatase Positive
Indoxyl acetate pos/neg?
Indoxyl acetate Negative
Growth at 42 C?
No growth at 42 C
Growth in 1% glycine?
No growth in 1% glycine
Nitrate reductase pos/neg?
Nitrate reductase negative