Brachyspira (Serpulina) Lawsonia Treponema Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Bacteriology Gram Negatives > Brachyspira (Serpulina) Lawsonia Treponema > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brachyspira (Serpulina) Lawsonia Treponema Deck (53):
1

What family does Brachyspira belong to?

Family Spirochaetaceae

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Brachyspira Gram__? Shape?

Gram negative Spiral shaped

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Brachyspira Aerobe/Non-aerobe?

Oxygen-tolerate Obligate anaerobes

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Brachyspira Where do they typically colonize?

Large Intestine

5

Look at this chart on species variations

*Chart*

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6

Look at map of distribution

*Map* Said in class: North Carolina too

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Brachyspira - Pathogens in the genus

B. hyodysenteriae B. pilosicoli B. aalborgi Controversial ones: B. intermedia (avian spirochetosis) B. murdochii, B. innocens, B. canis

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**Brachyspira hyodysenteriae**

Swine dysentary!! -Actively growin pigs (6-12wks) **Only strongly beta-hemolytic strain** **Indole Positive**

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Brachyspira pilosicoli

Colonic /Intestinal Spirochetosis -Pigs (post-wean), dogs, birds, immunocompromised humans

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Brachyspira aalborgi

Human spirochetosis (rare)

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Brachyspira- Virulence factors

Cell Wall Flagella

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Brachyspira - Cell Wall 2 virulence factors

LPS Hemolysin/ Cytotoxin

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Brachyspira - LPS

More like LOS, short/variable O-antigen repeats Endotoxin/Lipid A

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Brachyspira- Hemolysin/Cytotoxin

**B. Hyodysenteriae=strongly beta hemolytic** Pore-forming cytotoxin : goblet & colonial epithelial cell damage

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Brachyspira - Flagella

Necessary for virulence! -Move through intestinal mucus to access target cells

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Brachyspira- Reservoir

Can persist in environment for months if protected from desiccation

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Brachyspira Reservoir B. hyodysenteriae

**Asymptomatic carrier pigs** -Mice, shed for <6 months -Dogs, rats, birds

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Brachyspira Reservoir B pilosicoli

Isolated from dogs, birds, many mammals, humans Attach to intestinal mucosa is key to carriage

19

Brachyspira - Transmission

All species - Fecal-Oral

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Brachyspira Pathogenesis

Colon colonized==> Inflammation, cytotoxins, PMNS==> Superficial coagulation necrosis with epithelial erosion in mucosa/submucosa -Edema, hyperemia, hemorrhages Failure of colonic absorption

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Brachyspira - Signs

Secretory diarrhea Grey to strawberry-colored feces Dehydration - acidotic & hyperkalemic High morbidity, 40% mortality Lasts several weeks Asymptomatic shedders difficult to ID

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Brachyspira Differentials

Salmonellosis Lawsonia intracellularis

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What is the likely causative agent of these signs in the pictures?

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Brachyspira infection (Likely B. hyodysenteriae)

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What is this picture showing?

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Avian intestinal spirochaetosis B. pilosicoli adhering to cecal surface epithelial cells

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Brachyspira - Immunology

Poorly understood -Recovered pigs resistant <4 months

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Which antibodies fight against a Brachyspira infection?

IgG and IgA - but not highly protective

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Brachyspira - Bacterins

Reduce severity of the disease

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Brachyspira Samples

Fecal or colonic

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Brachyspira Problems with sample collection

Should be conducted quickly, not be allowed to dry

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Brachyspira Stained smears

Loosely coiled spirochetes -Must be differentiated from nonpathogenic species

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Brachyspira Isolation Selective medias used

Blood agar with several antibiotics: Spectinomycin Rifampin Spiramycin Vancomycin Polymixin Colistin

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Brachyspira Incubation

Anaerobic for several days

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Brachyspira - Hemolysis

Beta hemolysis (ring) Strength related to pathogenicity **B. hyodysenteriae**

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Brachyspira - Lab Dx

PCR (rule out Salmonella & Lawsonia) B hyodysenteriae are indole positive

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Brachyspira Treatment

Resistance! Several antibiotics Tiamulin, Valnemulin, tylosin, lincomycin, carbadox (restricted) MTZ for dogs

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Brachyspira Control - Avians

Difficult No approved treatments Long withdrawal times

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Lawsonia intracellularis Disease & specied affected

*Proliferative Enteropathy* Porcine Equine Rodents (& other mammals) Avians

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Lawsonia intracellularis Site of infection

Obligate intracellular pathogen of enterocytes (Apical cytoplasmic area - closest to lumen)

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Lawsonia intracellularis Distribution

Worldwide

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Lawsonia Virulence factors

LPS - typical Gram Negative T3SS - unknown role

41

Lawsonia Reservoir

Intestinal tract and environment Possible rodents on horse & pig farms

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Lawsonia Transmission

Fecal-oral

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Lawsonia - What is required for disease to show?

Interaction with unknown natural flora -Experimental inoculation of germ-free swine does not lead to disease

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Lawsonia Pathogenesis

Microbes escape phagocytic vacuole--> Multiply--> Inhibit host cell maturation (but enterocyte division continues, daughter cells infected)

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Lawsonia - Site of infection

Distal jejunum and ileum

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Lawsonia - Effect at infection sie

Minimal to moderate inflammation -Neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes present

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Lawsonia - Type of immunoglobulin?

IgA - specific response

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Lawsonia - Lasting immunity?

Recovered pigs are resistant to infection

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Lawsonia - Vaccine?

Swine vaccine available, commonly used Oral. Live-attenuated

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Lawsonia Diagnosis

Stained smears of intestinal mucosa Histo: evidence of proliferative changes Immunohistochemical stains Isolation NOT feasible PCR

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Lawsonia Treatment

Tetracyclines Tylosin Tiamulin Lincomycin Carbadox (where available)

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Treponema Typical disease

Digital dermatitis of cattle Contagious ovine digital dermatitis

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Treponema paraluiscuniculi

Vent disease of rabbits, ***rabbit syphilis**** Not zoonotic Sexually transmitted (usually)

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