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RUSVM Bacteriology Gram Negatives > Mycoplasma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mycoplasma Deck (87):
1

Mollicutes General Morphology

"Soft Skin"

-Smallest self-replicating organisms

-NO CELL WALL

-Ubiquitous

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Mollicutes - 3 Genera

Mycoplasma

Ureaplasma

Acholeplasma

3

What are the two types of Mollicutes

Non-hemotrophic & Hemotrophic

4

What are the common sites of disease in Non-Hemotrophic Mollicutes?

Respiratory Tract - Urinary Tract - Arthritis - Mastitis - Conjunctivitis - Septicemia

5

What were Hemotrophic mollicutes formerly classified as?

Haemobartonella & Eperythrozoon

6

What is the disease pattern of Hemotrophic mollicutes?

Hemolytic anemia

7

Mollicutes Shape? Stain-ability?

Very pleomorphic

-Stains poorly

8

What do mollicutes have instead of a cell wall?

Trilaminar membrane

9

Describe the components of the trilaminar membrane of mollicutes

Proteins - Glycoproteins

- Lipoproteins - Phospholipids - Sterols

(Cholesterol for osmotic stability)

10

Describe the genome of mollicutes

Very small genome

-Extremely plastic (plasmic, phage, transposon components)

11

What might mollicutes have evolved from?

Clostridium - Streptococcus

12

Which genera are non-hemotrophic mollicutes?

Ureaplasma and non-hemotrophic mycoplasma

13

Non-hemotrophic mollicutes Host range?

Often host-specific (not exclusively)

NOT usually zoonotic

14

Non-hemotrophic mollicutes Culture/ growth patterns

Slow Growth

- CO2-enriched atmosphere at mammalian temps

****-"Fried egg" colonies

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Non-hemotrophic mollicutes Sites of infection & presentations

Mainly respiratory and urogenital tract infections

-Occasionally conjunctivitis - arthritis - mastitis - septicemia

16

Non-hemotrophic mollicutes Reservoir

-Possible normal flora of infected host

-*Mucosal surfaces*

-May survive in moist, cool environments

17

Non-hemotrophic mollicutes Transmission

Usually *direct contact*

(respiratory or venereal secretions)

18

Non-hemotrophic mollicutes

Epidemiology

Asymptomatic carriers

-Dairies: mechanical

-Poultry: vertical

-Arthropod suspected

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Non-hemotrophic mollicutes

Pathogenesis

Underlying factor -->

attachment to host mucosa -->

Some survive in non-phagocytic cells or fuse with eukaryotic cell membranes -->

Latent infections

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Non-hemotrophic mollicutes

Pathogenesis

What are underlying factors for disease susceptibility?

-Age

-Crowding

-Concurrent infections

-Transportation stress

21

Non-hemotrophic mollicutes

Latent infections -How do they evade the immune system?

-Antigenic variability

-Biological mimicry

22

Non-hemotrophic mollicutes

Acute septicemic form

Coagulopathy & widespread vascular thrombosis (Resembles gram-neg septicemia)

23

Non-hemotrophic mollicutes

Chronic infections

Persists through intense inflammatory response & peroxidation

-Tissue damage

24

Mollicutes Virulence Factors

Peroxide/ Superoxide

Urease

Proinflammatory molecules

IgA proteases

25

Mollicutes Peroxide/Superoxide role

Disrupt host cell integrity

26

Mollicutes Urease role

Ureaplasma spp.

Inflammatory & increases pH (ammonia)

27

Mollicutes Proinflammatory molecules

-Leftover/excessive antigens

-Downregulate or "confuse" CMI & humoral system

28

Avian Mycoplasmosis 3 causative species

M. gallisepticum

M. synoviae

M. meleagridis

M. iowae

29

Avian Mycoplasmosis M. gallisepticum Clinical signs chickens vs. turkeys

Chickens: Chronic respiratory disease

Turkeys: Infectious sinusitis

Both: Decreased egg production

*House finch conjunctivitis (US)

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Avian Mycoplasmosis

M. synoviae Clinical signs

Turkeys: Sternal bursitis

Synovitis (Lameness, joint swelling, reduced growth)

Subclinical airsacculitis

31

Avian Mycoplasmosis

M. meleagridis M. iowae

Mainly in turkeys- Clinical signs

Airsacculitis - Skeletal deformities - Growth stunting - Decreased egg hatchability

32

What disease does Mycoplasma cause in bovine?

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Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP)

33

What species of mycoplasma causes CBPP in bovine?

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides

(small colony variant)

34

Describe CBPP in bovine

Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides

Most virulent Mycoplasma in cattle

Respiratory disease

35

CBPP respiratory signs

Subclinical & persistent

Sometimes acute and/or fatal presentation

Respiratory distress - Coughing - Nasal discharge - Lethargy

36

CBPP key sign at necropsy

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia -Micro-abscesses throughout lung tissue

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37

What disease does this finding indicate?

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Micro-abscesses throughout the lung

-Mycoplasma infected ruminants

38

Bovine mycoplasma mastitis Causative species?

M. bovis

M. californicum

M. canadense

(M. alkalescens, M. bovigenitalium)

39

What are the key signs of mycoplasma mastitis?

Drop in milk production (duh)

Milk= thick & mixed with watery & purulent secretions

Udder= swollen, 4 quarters affected

Enlarged supramammary lymph nodes, Dissemination possible

40

What is the arrow pointing to in this picture?

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Enlarged supra-mammary lymph nodes in cow with mastitis

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41

Bovine mollicute urinary tract infections

Causative species

Mycoplasma bovigenitalium

Ureaplasma diversum

(normal commensal organisms of lower UG tract)

42

Bovine mollicute urinary tract infections

Clinical signs

Seminal vesiculitis in bulls

Granular vulvitis

Vaginitis - Endometritis - Abortions

43

Caprine/Ovine mollicute infection

2 reportable diseases

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

Contagious agalactia of sheep & goats

44

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

Causative species

M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

(Similar to bovine pleuropneumonia)

45

Contagious agalactia of sheep & goats

Causative species

M. agalactiae

M. putrefaciens

46

Contagious agalactia of sheep & goats

Clinical signs

Febrile mastitis

Arthritis & conjunctivitis

47

Sheep & Goats:

M. mycoides supsp mycoides (large colony variants)

Clinical signs

Mastitis - Pneumonia - Bursitis - Arthritis

Kids: rapid fatal septicemia

48

Sheep & Goats

M. mycoides capri

Clinical signs

Pleuropneumonia

49

Three causative species of Porcine mycoplasma infection

M. hyopneumoniae

M. hyorhinis

M. hyosynoviae

50

What disease does M. hyopneumoniae cause?

Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia

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What is the causative species of Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia

M. hyopneumoniae

52

Clinical signs of Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia

M. hyopneumoniae

Chronic respiratory disease

Chronic non-productive cough,

Unthrifty, decreased weight gain (in growers)

High morbidity, Low mortality

53

What age of pigs does M. hyorhinis affect?

Systemic infection in pigs 3-10wks

54

What are the clinical signs of M. hyorhinis?

**Polyserositis**

Fever, anorexia, listlessness Arthritis, lameness

55

Clinical signs of a pig infected with M. hyosynoviae

Arthritis in growers (3-6mo) Lameness

56

What mycoplasma species affect horses?

M. felis

M. equirhinitis

M. fastidiosum

M. equigenitalum

M. subdolum

57

What mycoplasma species causes self-limitin pleuritis in horse?

M. felis

58

What mycoplasma species cause respiratory disease in horse?

M. equirhinitis

M. fastidiosum

59

What mycoplasma species cause infertility in mares?

M. equigenitalium

M. subdolum

60

What mycoplasma species affect Felines

M. gatae

M. felis

61

What does M. gatae cause in cats?

Arthritis

62

What does M. felis cause in cats?

Conjuntivitis

63

What mycoplasma species affect canine

M. canis

M. cynos

M. spumans

64

What are the clinical signs of Mycoplasma canis in dogs?

Urogenital disease

(prostatitis, cystitis, endometritis, orchitis, epididymitis)

Infertility

65

What disease do M. cynose and M. spumans cause in canines?

Respiratory & arthritic associations

66

What species of mycoplasma affect murine (mice/rats)

M. pulmonis

67

What does M. pulmonis cause in mice/rats?

Mice: Mild-moderate respiratory disease

Rats: genital tract infections

68

Diagnosis of mycoplasma infection

Samples from affected tissues

-Culture very difficult

-Serological & molecular techniques more promising

69

Prevention of mycoplasma infection

Attenuated Live Vaccines!

Diminish disease, not infection

Protect cattle in CBPP enzootic areas

Used for swine pneumonias, caprine mastitis, egg losses in avian

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Treatment of mycoplasma infection

Tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones

-High failure rates

71

Control mycoplasma infections

Test & slaughter

BIOSECURITY

Most effective for control

72

Hemotrophic mollicutes Area of infection

Red blood cell parasites

73

Hemotrophic mollicutes

Clinical signs

Hemolytic anemia in young, immunocompromised, stressed animals

(asymptomatic / subclinical)

74

Hemotrophic mollicutes

Spread/Transmission

Blood-to-blood contact Ectoparasites

75

Hemotrophic mollicutes

Important species

Cats

M. haemofelis (Feline Infectious Anemia)

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Hemotrophic mollicutes

Important species

Dog

M. haemocanis

77

Hemotrophic mollicutes

Important species

Pigs

M. suis

78

Hemotrophic mollicutes

Important species

Cattle

M. wenyonii

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Hemotrophic mollicutes

Important species

Caprine/Ovine

M. ovis

80

Hemotrophic mollicutes

Important species

Mice

M. coccoides

M. haemomuris

81

Hemotrophic mollicutes

Clinical signs

Icterus

Splenomegaly

Bone marrow hyperplasia

82

Hemotrophic mollicutes

Diagnosis

Clinical signs

Visualize on blood film

PCR

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83

Hemotrophic mollicutes

Treatment

Correct the anemia!

Tetracyclines

84

Hemotrophic mollicute

Feline infectious anemia

Causative agent

Mycoplasma haemofelis

85

Hemotrophic mollicute

Feline infectious anemia

Disease pattern

Concurrent with FIV / FeLV

Free-roaming tom cats

Peracute/Acute*/Chronic

Fever, anemia weakness, jaundice

86

Hemotrophic mollicute

Feline infectious anemia

Differentials

Autoimmune anemia

Babesia

Cytauxzoon felis

87

Hemotrophic mollicute

Feline infectious anemia Treatment

Blood

Doxycycline

Flea control