Burns & Scalds Flashcards Preview

AES Course > Burns & Scalds > Flashcards

Flashcards in Burns & Scalds Deck (21)
1

Definition of a burn

A thermal insult which damages the skin and/or underlying structures

2

Types of burn and scald

Flame or radiation (thermal)
Dry heat
Wet heat
Electricity
Friction
Corrosive chemicals

3

Scalds - caused by wet heat

Water
Steam
Fat
Hot liquid chemicals

4

Three main dangers of a burn

The burn itself
Flesh wounds
Infection

5

Dangers of an electrical burn

Safety of yourself and the patient - isolate electrical current before proceeding

Surface are of the burn may be misleading with possibility of deeper layers of tissue being affected

Shock, infection, damage to; respiratory, cardio-vascular and nervous system

Possibility of two burn sites - entry and exit wound

6

Dangers of a chemical burn

Safety of yourself and the patient

Toxic fumes

Chemical still burning

Dangers as for a thermal burn

7

Classification of burns

Superficial burns (1st degree)

Partial thickness burns (2nd degree)

Full thickness burns (3rd degree)

8

Assessment of burns

Scene assessment
Mechanism of burn
Surface area
Patient type
Complex burns
Pre existing conditions
Extremes of age

9

Superficial burns

Injury to the epidermis only.
Red, inflamed skin, painful to touch.
Generally no treatment required.

10

Partial Thickness burns

Injury to both the epidermis and the dermis.
Skin presents with reddened areas, blisters or open weeping wounds.
Patient complains of a great deal of pain.
Significant fluid loss occurs with subsequent shock.

11

Full thickness burns

Injury to the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, possibly deeper.

May look charred or leathery.

Not painful (although associated 2nd degree burns will cause pain).

No capillary refill.

12

Body surface area (adult)
rule of nines

The adult body configuration is divided into anatomic regions that represent 9% or multiples of 9%.

Head 9%
Left Arm 9%/Right arm 9%
Front of torso 18%
Back 18%
Groin 1%
Left Leg 18%/Right Leg 18%

13

Body surface area (infant or child)
rule of nines

The infant or child head represents a larger portion of the surface area. The lower extremities a lesser portion.

Head 18%
Left Arm 9%/Right arm 9%
Front of torso 18%
Back 18%
Left Leg 14%/Right Leg 14%

14

Time critical Burn

Any Major ABCD problems
Any signs of airway burns
History of hot gas inhalation
Circumferential burns
Facial burns
Surface area >25%(12.5% children)
Presence of other major injuries

15

Evaluation of critical burn areas

Burns to the hands, feet, genitalia, or face and burns that completely encircle body areas are considered to have high priority.

16

Factors to determine burn severity

Depth of the burn
Body surface area involved
Age of the patient (%+age=>100=poor outcome)
Pulmonary injury
Associated injuries
Pre-existing disease

17

Complications of burns

Airway/inhalation injury
Fluid loss/shock
Pain
Carbon monoxide poisoning/cyanide poisoning
Hidden injury
Hypothermia
Circumferential burns

18

Management of thermal injury

Determine scene safety
Stop the burning process
Cool burn area with water
Do not induce hypothermia
Conduct primary survey ABCDE
Expose
Analgesia as required
Remove constricting clothing and jewellery
Do not apply anything but water to a burn
Do not delay transport on time critical burns.

19

Airway burns - management

High index of suspicion
High concentration of oxygen
Management of the airway
Paramedic interventions may be required (needle cric' if airway obstructed)
Rapid transport

20

Consider the consequences - for the patient

Long term physical and psychological challenges.
Extensive rehabilitation.
Long term consequences with: thermoregulation, motor function and sensory function

21

Consider the consequences - for the paramedic

Sever burns emergencies can be one of the most horrifying of tasks.
Dealing with patients in severe pain.
Lasting memories.