Campylobacter & Arcobacter Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Bacteriology Gram Negatives > Campylobacter & Arcobacter > Flashcards

Flashcards in Campylobacter & Arcobacter Deck (83):
1

Campylobacter & Arcobacter belong to which family?

Family Campylobacteriaceae

2

Campylobacter & Arcobacter Gram___? Shape

Gram negative Small, curved rods

3

Campylobacter & Arcobacter Spore-forming?

No spores

4

Campylobacter & Arcobacter Shape when in pairs?

S-shaped or *gull-wing*

5

Campylobacter & Arcobacter Shape when in chains?

Spiral *picture*

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6

Campylobacter & Arcobacter Cause disease in which areas?

Reproductive Tract Intestinal Tract

7

Campylobacter & Arcobacter Zoonotic?

Several strains, yes

8

What is the causative agent of "vibriosis"

Campylobacter fetus & subspecies Originally classified with Vibrio spp.

9

What is the name for an infection by Campylobacter fetus

Vibriosis

10

Name two Campylobacter species that are leading causes of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans?

C. jejuni C. coli

11

Sources of C. jejuni & C. coli

Un/undercooked contaminated food (meat/*poultry*) Unpasteurized milk Contaminated water

12

Campylobacter - Virulence factors - Name them

Cell Wall - LPS Capsule Adhesins Flagella Cia CDT T2SS T4SS

13

Campylobacter - Virulence LPS compared to Enterobacteriaceae

Not as immunoreactive as Enterobacteriaceae LPS

14

Campylobacter - Virulence LPS- C. fetus

C. fetus- long O-antigen chain for serum resistance

15

Campylobacter - Virulence LPS- C. jejuni

Makes LOS instead! -Varies depending on location (Intestine vs. blood) (Mammal vs. avian)

16

Campylobacter - Virulence Capsule

Highly variable Useful for serotyping Shields LOS of C. jejuni

17

Campylobacter - Virulence Adhesins (type, species, role)

CadF in C. jejuni and C. coli -Mediates adhesion to cells

18

Campylobacter - Virulence Flagella

Motility & colonization

19

Campylobacter - Virulence Mutations in flagellin gene

Mutations in flagellin genes: -Abolish motility -Prevent secretion of Cia (Campylobacter Invasion Antigen)

20

Campylobacter - Virulence Cia

Campylobacter Invasion Antigen -Needed for cell invasion

21

Campylobacter - Virulence CDT

Cytolethal Distending Toxin -Most species -ONLY toxin in the genus -Causes apoptosis of host cells

22

Campylobacter - Virulence T2SS

"Natural competence" Binds free DNA for genomic/plasmid incorporatoin & replication

23

What is known as "natural competence?"

T2SS

24

Campylobacter - Virulence T4SS

Genetic transfer role *C. fetus sbsp venerealis* in bovine reproductive tract

25

What species & subspecies infects the bovine reproductive tract and secretes T4SS?

*C. fetus sbsp venerealis*

26

Campylobacter- Conditions for Growth - O2/CO2

Microaerobic -Require 3-10% O2 -Require 3-15% CO2

27

Campylobacter - Temperature for growth of all species

37C (poor-no growth below 30C)

28

Campylobacter - Which species grow at 42C

C. jejuni C. coli C. lari

29

Campylobacter Oxidase pos/neg?

Oxidase positive

30

Campylobacter Lactose fermenter?

Non-lactose fermenting or oxidizing

31

How is most Campylobacter serotyping done?

Via molecular methods (PCR)

32

Campylobacter- Reservoir C. fetus sbsp venerealis

Preputial crypts of carrier bulls Few cows persisten vaginal carriers/reservoirs

33

Campylobacter - Reservoir C. fetus sbsp fetus

Intestinal tract & gall bladder of infected ruminants

34

Campylobacter- Reservoir C. jejuni (and other enteric spp)

Intestinal tract & gall bladder of carrier species (many)

35

Campylobacter- Reservoir C. coli

Pigs & poultry primarily

36

Campylobacter- Transmission Reproductive disease Name the species that cause this

C. fetus sbsp venerealis C. fetus sbsp fetus C. jejuni

37

Campylobacter- Transmission C. fetus sbsp venerealis

Especially in cattle -Venereally! (duh, subspecies name) -Coitus, artificial insemination

38

Campylobacter- Transmission C. fetus sbsp fetus & C. jenuni

C. jejuni (especially sheep/goats) Ingestion of fecal OR fetus-contaminated feed/water "Fecal-Oral OR Fetus-oral"

39

Campylobacter- Transmission Enteric disease

Fecal-Oral Human-Human is rare Usually *poultry!* -Meat -Unpasteurized milk -Contaminated water

40

Campylobacter- Pathogenesis Cow

Coitus/Transmission of C. fetus sbsp. venerealis --> Multiply & hang out in cervico-vaginal junction until end of estrous (PMNs, Blood) --> Progestational phase: infects uterus, inflammation, endometritis, abortions

41

Campylobacter- Signs & immunity development Cow, bull

Cow-Repeat breeding & extended cycles (10-60, normal 21) Herd bull- loss of condition -Immunity eventually develops -Process takes years

42

What is the reportable disease caused by Campylobacter?

Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis

43

Describe disease pattern of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis?

Fetal ansarca (edema everywhere) Metritis (necrotizing inflammation with grayish-brown foul smelling uterine exudate)

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44

Campylobacter- Pathogenesis Sheep & Goats

Ingestion of C. fetus sbsp fetus or C. jejuni --> Bloodstream--> Localize in pregnant [late-stage] uterus --> Placentitis & "ABORTION STORM" (highly contaminated fluids)

45

What area does Campylobacter often cause disease in?

Reproductive disease -Very common cause of ovine abortion in some countries

46

Abortion Pathology Describe the findings

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Campylobacter abortion Multifocal liver necrosis in stillborn lamb

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47

Abortion Pathology Describe the findings

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Campylobacter abortion Pleurisy & pericarditis in stillborn lamb

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48

Abortion Pathology Describe the finding

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***Know this one***Necrotic Target or "Donut" shaped lesion in fetal liver are PATHOGNOMONIC for ovine Campylobacter. (C. jejuni or C. fetus spp. fetus

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49

Campylobacter Pathogenesis C. jejuni - Enteric Disease

Bacteria adhere to cells in distal small intestine --> Inflammation & tissue destruction (Cia, Cytotoxin, PMNs) --> Secretion of Cl- and water (Diarrhea)

50

What is the most frequent cause of food poisoning in many countries?

Campylobacter jejuni

51

What is the most common source of Campylobacter (C. jejuni in particular)

Poultry meat!

52

What can direct contact with dogs cause?

C. jejuni infection! Enteric disease

53

Look at the important diagram

*Diagram*

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54

Campylobacter Epidemiology Cattle

Reproductive disease -Primarily Beef with natural breeding -AI reduced prevalence in Dairy

55

Campylobacter Epidemiology Sheep/Goats

Abortions! especially when crowded -C. jejuni & C. fetus sbsp fetus, Occasionally C. coli

56

Campylobacter Epidemiology Enteric Disease - chickens

Fecal-oral! ~50% of chicken ceca contain C. jejuni

57

Campylobacter Epidemiology Enteric Disease- Shelters

Shelter dogs/cats & dogs fed homemade diets likely to carry C. jejuni

58

What can happen if a slaughterhouse is infected with Campylobacter?

May contaminate all poultry meat products, even to point-of-sale

59

Campylobacter - Immunology Reproductive Disease in Cattle Cow

Active response in uterus & normal flora usually clear it

60

Campylobacter - Immunology Reproductive Disease in Cattle Type of Antibodies used & role

Serum IgM, IgG Secreted IgA, IgG, IgM Prevent adherence of organisms

61

Campylobacter - Immunology Reproductive Disease in Cattle Bull

Older bulls may be infected carriers for life - Deep preputial crypts

62

Campylobacter - Immunology Reproductive Disease in Cattle Vaccination

May prevent/eliminate infection from males & females

63

Campylobacter - Immunology Reproductive Disease in Sheep/Goats

Immune after abortion/vaccination IgM and IgG antibodies (promote opsonization & complement)

64

Campylobacter- Immunology Enteric Disease

Effective circulating & mucosal antibodies protect mucosa (not lumen) -Usually self-limiting -Recolonization possible without clinical signs

65

Campylobacter - Sample collection - Cattle

Repro disease From males-more likely positive Smegma or preputial scrapings All bulls, 10% cows should be sampled

66

Campylobacter- Sample collection -Sheep

Repro disease Abomasal fluid, lung, liver from aborted fetuses Placenta & associated fluids often over-contaminated

67

Campylobacter - Sample collection -Enteric disease

Fecal samples

68

Campylobacter - Direct exam Cattle

Reproductive Disease -Difficult, low numbers, fluorescent stains useful

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69

Campylobacter- Direct exam Sheep

Reproductive Disease -Visualization of small curved rods w/tumbling motility

70

Campylobacter- Direct exam Enteric disease

Numerous slender, curved, gram-negative rods

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71

Campylobacter - Isolation Reproductive Disease

Selective media decreases contaminants -Vancomycin -Polymixin -Trimethoprim

72

Campylobacter Isolation Enteric Disease

Similar to Reproductive Dz *Skirrow medium* -Antibiotic as with Repro dz, with lysed horse blood

73

Campylobacter- Treatment Cattle reproductive disease

VACCINATION!! AI Streptomycin topically and/or systemically for bulls, then VACCINATE

74

Campylobacter - Treatment Sheep/Goat Reproductive disease

Vaccination reduce severity/occurrence of abortion storms -Tetracycline resistance developed

75

Campylobacter- Treatment Enteric disease

Usually self-limiting Macrolides=drug of choice Hygeine!

76

Are there vaccines available for C. jejuni?

Causes enteric disease NO vaccines available

77

Arcobacter- Disease pattern -Livestock

Diarrhea Abortion

78

Arcobacter- Disease pattern Cattle

Mastitis!

79

Arcobacter- Disease pattern Humans

Gastroenteritis (usually self-limiting)

80

Arcobacter - (3) Species of concern

A. butzleri A. cryaerophilus A. skirrowii

81

Arcobacter - Reservoir

Intestinal tract & environment of infected animals

82

Arcobacter - Growth characteristics

Aerotolerant Tolerant of lower temps than Campylobacter MacConkey growth at 37C

83

Arcobacter-Transmission

Likely Fecal-Oral