Campylobacter & Arcobacter belong to which family?
Campylobacter & Arcobacter Gram___? Shape
Gram negative Small, curved rods
Campylobacter & Arcobacter Spore-forming?
Campylobacter & Arcobacter Shape when in pairs?
S-shaped or *gull-wing*
Campylobacter & Arcobacter Shape when in chains?
Campylobacter & Arcobacter Cause disease in which areas?
Reproductive Tract Intestinal Tract
Campylobacter & Arcobacter Zoonotic?
Several strains, yes
What is the causative agent of "vibriosis"
Campylobacter fetus & subspecies Originally classified with Vibrio spp.
What is the name for an infection by Campylobacter fetus
Name two Campylobacter species that are leading causes of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans?
C. jejuni C. coli
Sources of C. jejuni & C. coli
Un/undercooked contaminated food (meat/*poultry*) Unpasteurized milk Contaminated water
Campylobacter - Virulence factors - Name them
Cell Wall - LPS Capsule Adhesins Flagella Cia CDT T2SS T4SS
Campylobacter - Virulence LPS compared to Enterobacteriaceae
Not as immunoreactive as Enterobacteriaceae LPS
Campylobacter - Virulence LPS- C. fetus
C. fetus- long O-antigen chain for serum resistance
Campylobacter - Virulence LPS- C. jejuni
Makes LOS instead! -Varies depending on location (Intestine vs. blood) (Mammal vs. avian)
Campylobacter - Virulence Capsule
Highly variable Useful for serotyping Shields LOS of C. jejuni
Campylobacter - Virulence Adhesins (type, species, role)
CadF in C. jejuni and C. coli -Mediates adhesion to cells
Campylobacter - Virulence Flagella
Motility & colonization
Campylobacter - Virulence Mutations in flagellin gene
Mutations in flagellin genes: -Abolish motility -Prevent secretion of Cia (Campylobacter Invasion Antigen)
Campylobacter - Virulence Cia
Campylobacter Invasion Antigen -Needed for cell invasion
Campylobacter - Virulence CDT
Cytolethal Distending Toxin -Most species -ONLY toxin in the genus -Causes apoptosis of host cells
Campylobacter - Virulence T2SS
"Natural competence" Binds free DNA for genomic/plasmid incorporatoin & replication
What is known as "natural competence?"
Campylobacter - Virulence T4SS
Genetic transfer role *C. fetus sbsp venerealis* in bovine reproductive tract
What species & subspecies infects the bovine reproductive tract and secretes T4SS?
*C. fetus sbsp venerealis*
Campylobacter- Conditions for Growth - O2/CO2
Microaerobic -Require 3-10% O2 -Require 3-15% CO2
Campylobacter - Temperature for growth of all species
37C (poor-no growth below 30C)
Campylobacter - Which species grow at 42C
C. jejuni C. coli C. lari
Campylobacter Oxidase pos/neg?
Campylobacter Lactose fermenter?
Non-lactose fermenting or oxidizing
How is most Campylobacter serotyping done?
Via molecular methods (PCR)
Campylobacter- Reservoir C. fetus sbsp venerealis
Preputial crypts of carrier bulls Few cows persisten vaginal carriers/reservoirs
Campylobacter - Reservoir C. fetus sbsp fetus
Intestinal tract & gall bladder of infected ruminants
Campylobacter- Reservoir C. jejuni (and other enteric spp)
Intestinal tract & gall bladder of carrier species (many)
Campylobacter- Reservoir C. coli
Pigs & poultry primarily
Campylobacter- Transmission Reproductive disease Name the species that cause this
C. fetus sbsp venerealis C. fetus sbsp fetus C. jejuni
Campylobacter- Transmission C. fetus sbsp venerealis
Especially in cattle -Venereally! (duh, subspecies name) -Coitus, artificial insemination
Campylobacter- Transmission C. fetus sbsp fetus & C. jenuni
C. jejuni (especially sheep/goats) Ingestion of fecal OR fetus-contaminated feed/water "Fecal-Oral OR Fetus-oral"
Campylobacter- Transmission Enteric disease
Fecal-Oral Human-Human is rare Usually *poultry!* -Meat -Unpasteurized milk -Contaminated water
Campylobacter- Pathogenesis Cow
Coitus/Transmission of C. fetus sbsp. venerealis --> Multiply & hang out in cervico-vaginal junction until end of estrous (PMNs, Blood) --> Progestational phase: infects uterus, inflammation, endometritis, abortions
Campylobacter- Signs & immunity development Cow, bull
Cow-Repeat breeding & extended cycles (10-60, normal 21) Herd bull- loss of condition -Immunity eventually develops -Process takes years
What is the reportable disease caused by Campylobacter?
Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis
Describe disease pattern of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis?
Fetal ansarca (edema everywhere) Metritis (necrotizing inflammation with grayish-brown foul smelling uterine exudate)
Campylobacter- Pathogenesis Sheep & Goats
Ingestion of C. fetus sbsp fetus or C. jejuni --> Bloodstream--> Localize in pregnant [late-stage] uterus --> Placentitis & "ABORTION STORM" (highly contaminated fluids)
What area does Campylobacter often cause disease in?
Reproductive disease -Very common cause of ovine abortion in some countries
Abortion Pathology Describe the findings
Campylobacter abortion Multifocal liver necrosis in stillborn lamb
Abortion Pathology Describe the findings
Campylobacter abortion Pleurisy & pericarditis in stillborn lamb
Abortion Pathology Describe the finding
***Know this one***Necrotic Target or "Donut" shaped lesion in fetal liver are PATHOGNOMONIC for ovine Campylobacter. (C. jejuni or C. fetus spp. fetus
Campylobacter Pathogenesis C. jejuni - Enteric Disease
Bacteria adhere to cells in distal small intestine --> Inflammation & tissue destruction (Cia, Cytotoxin, PMNs) --> Secretion of Cl- and water (Diarrhea)
What is the most frequent cause of food poisoning in many countries?
What is the most common source of Campylobacter (C. jejuni in particular)
What can direct contact with dogs cause?
C. jejuni infection! Enteric disease
Look at the important diagram
Campylobacter Epidemiology Cattle
Reproductive disease -Primarily Beef with natural breeding -AI reduced prevalence in Dairy
Campylobacter Epidemiology Sheep/Goats
Abortions! especially when crowded -C. jejuni & C. fetus sbsp fetus, Occasionally C. coli
Campylobacter Epidemiology Enteric Disease - chickens
Fecal-oral! ~50% of chicken ceca contain C. jejuni
Campylobacter Epidemiology Enteric Disease- Shelters
Shelter dogs/cats & dogs fed homemade diets likely to carry C. jejuni
What can happen if a slaughterhouse is infected with Campylobacter?
May contaminate all poultry meat products, even to point-of-sale
Campylobacter - Immunology Reproductive Disease in Cattle Cow
Active response in uterus & normal flora usually clear it
Campylobacter - Immunology Reproductive Disease in Cattle Type of Antibodies used & role
Serum IgM, IgG Secreted IgA, IgG, IgM Prevent adherence of organisms
Campylobacter - Immunology Reproductive Disease in Cattle Bull
Older bulls may be infected carriers for life - Deep preputial crypts
Campylobacter - Immunology Reproductive Disease in Cattle Vaccination
May prevent/eliminate infection from males & females
Campylobacter - Immunology Reproductive Disease in Sheep/Goats
Immune after abortion/vaccination IgM and IgG antibodies (promote opsonization & complement)
Campylobacter- Immunology Enteric Disease
Effective circulating & mucosal antibodies protect mucosa (not lumen) -Usually self-limiting -Recolonization possible without clinical signs
Campylobacter - Sample collection - Cattle
Repro disease From males-more likely positive Smegma or preputial scrapings All bulls, 10% cows should be sampled
Campylobacter- Sample collection -Sheep
Repro disease Abomasal fluid, lung, liver from aborted fetuses Placenta & associated fluids often over-contaminated
Campylobacter - Sample collection -Enteric disease
Campylobacter - Direct exam Cattle
Reproductive Disease -Difficult, low numbers, fluorescent stains useful
Campylobacter- Direct exam Sheep
Reproductive Disease -Visualization of small curved rods w/tumbling motility
Campylobacter- Direct exam Enteric disease
Numerous slender, curved, gram-negative rods
Campylobacter - Isolation Reproductive Disease
Selective media decreases contaminants -Vancomycin -Polymixin -Trimethoprim
Campylobacter Isolation Enteric Disease
Similar to Reproductive Dz *Skirrow medium* -Antibiotic as with Repro dz, with lysed horse blood
Campylobacter- Treatment Cattle reproductive disease
VACCINATION!! AI Streptomycin topically and/or systemically for bulls, then VACCINATE
Campylobacter - Treatment Sheep/Goat Reproductive disease
Vaccination reduce severity/occurrence of abortion storms -Tetracycline resistance developed
Campylobacter- Treatment Enteric disease
Usually self-limiting Macrolides=drug of choice Hygeine!
Are there vaccines available for C. jejuni?
Causes enteric disease NO vaccines available
Arcobacter- Disease pattern -Livestock
Arcobacter- Disease pattern Cattle
Arcobacter- Disease pattern Humans
Gastroenteritis (usually self-limiting)
Arcobacter - (3) Species of concern
A. butzleri A. cryaerophilus A. skirrowii
Arcobacter - Reservoir
Intestinal tract & environment of infected animals
Arcobacter - Growth characteristics
Aerotolerant Tolerant of lower temps than Campylobacter MacConkey growth at 37C