Cancer Cytogenetics Lecture Flashcards Preview

Hematology Module 2 > Cancer Cytogenetics Lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Cytogenetics Lecture Deck (56)
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1

Why do we study cytogenetics?

Important for proper diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy for patients with leukemia

2

n or 23

Haploid

3

2n or 46

Euploid

4

multiples of n (23, 46, 69...)

Polyploidy

5

3n or 69 chromosomes

Triploid

6

4n or 92 chromosomes

Tetraploidy

7

Gain or loss of chromosome

Aneuploidy

8

less than 46 chromosomes

Hypodiploid

9

More than 46 chromosomes

Hyperdiploid

10

*

Near haploid

11

*

Pseudodiploid

12

*

Derivative chromosome

13

Clonal proliferations of malignant leukocytes that arise initially in the bone marrow before disseminating to the peripheral blood, lymph nodes and other organs

Leukemia

14

DNA double helix looped around histone proteins

Nucleosome

15

Twisting of nucleosomes into a chromatin thread

Solenoid

16

Name the 5 processes of the Cell cycle and know what they do

G0- resting/quiescence
G1- Growth before DNA synthesis
S - DNA Synthesis
G2 - Growth
M - Division occurs (PMAT)

17

What cells are used for collection of specimens for chromosome analysis?

only cells in metaphase (cells with a high mitotic rate)

18

How are chromosomes identified?

- overall size
- placement of centromere
- banding patterns

19

P arm-
q arm

p arm petite arm - shorter arm
q arm - longer arm

20

What chemical is added to dividing cells to arrest them in metaphase

Colcemid (derivative colchicine)

21

Most common method of chromosome banding

Giemsa Banding

22

Giemsa Banding stains what areas of the chromosomes?

A-T rich areas

23

A-T rich regions of the chromosome are also known as what areas (3)

Dark areas
G-Positive
Q-Positve

24

G-C rich regions of the chromosome are knows as what areas? (3)

Light Areas
G-Negative
Q- Dull

25

From left to right name the karyotype nomenclature

- Modal number of chromosomes in the cell
- Sex chromosome designation
- Chromosomes
- Arm
- Band
- Sub-band

26

Regions, bands, and sub-bands are number starting where?

at the area closes to the centromere and get higher in value towards the telomere

27

47, XX, +21

Female with Down Syndrome

28

Structural Abnormalities
(8)

- Translocation
- Robertsonian Translocation
- Insertion
- Inversion
- Deletion
- Duplication
- Isochomosome
- Marker chromosome

29

Chromosome with a translocation

Derivative Chromosome

30

Occurs only on acrocentric chromosomes; results the fusion of two chromosomes

Robertsonian Translocation