Quantitative WBC Abnormalities (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

Hematology Module 2 > Quantitative WBC Abnormalities (Part 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quantitative WBC Abnormalities (Part 2) Deck (41)
Loading flashcards...
1

Normal WBC count

4.5- 11.5 x10^9/L

2

Definition of leukocytosis

any WBC over 11.5 x10^9/L

3

3 general mechanisms for all types of leukocytosis

1. Cells from BM (increased flow from BM)
2. Shift of cells from Marginal Granulocyte Pool to Circulating Granulocyte Pool
3. Decreased outflow of cells from blood

4

5 Physiological causes of leukocytosis

1. Exercise
2. Stress
3. Hypoxia
4. Labor
5. (shift from MGP to CGP) ?

5

6 Pathologic causes of leukocytosis

1. disease or tissue damage
2. Infection
3. Toxins (drugs, chemicals)
4. Necrosis (MI, burns, surgery)
5. Hemorrhage
6. Hemolysis

6

Definition of Lukemoid Reaction

Excessive leukocytosis
- WBC > 50.0 x 10^9/L WITH a left shift
-shift to the left in myeloid series - immature cells in PB

7

Two types of leukemoid reactions

Neutrophilic and Lymphocytic

8

Production of bands, myelos, metas - sometimes difficult to differentiate from chronic myelogenous leukemia and occurs with infections, hemolysis, and burns

Neutrophilic leukemoid reaction

9

Produces lymphs- maybe be hard to distinguish from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and these reactions can occur in Pertussis, mononucleosis, and viral infeactions

Lymphocytic leukemoid reaction

10

CML v.s. Leukemoid reaction
- increase in what cells

CML: increases in all granulocytes including eos and basos
Leukemoid: Increase in granulocytes BUT it is uncommon for increases in eos and basos

11

CML v.s. Leukemoid reaction
- Dyspoietic morphology (mixed granulation)

CML: Dyspoietic morphology
Leuk: No dyspoietic morphology

12

CML v.s. Leukemoid reaction
- platelets

CML: Giant and hypo granular platelets
Leuk: Normal platelet morphology

13

Define Leukoeythroblastosis

Presence of both immature neutrophils and nucleated RBCs in the peripheral blood

14

Cause of Leukoeythroblastosis

Caused by a space occupying lesion in the bone marrow
fibrosis, metastatic tumor, lymphoma, leukemia

15

Define Leukopenia

less than 4.5 x10^9/L

16

Mechanisms of leukopenia

1. Decreased flow of cells from bone marrow
2. Shift from CGP to MGP
3. Increased outflow from blood

17

Causes of leukopenia

1. Viral infections
2. Drugs (some antibiotics, chemotherapy)
3. Radiation
4. Hematologic disorders (pernicious anemia, aplastic anemia, myelodysplatic syndromes- MDS)

18

What is a relative value?

% of cell type in specified volume

19

What is an absolute value?

# of cell type in specified volume

20

Calculation for the Absolute Value

Absolute= total WBC x % cell type
(add up segs and bands for neutrophil count)

21

Definition of Neutrohilia

Increase in Neutrohils; greater than 8.1 x 10^9/L

22

Neutrophilia may be caused by: (4)

1. Physiologic: stress,exercise, pregnancy
2. Acute Infection, usually bacterial
3. Chonic Inflammation - gout, rheumatoid, arthritis, burns
4. Steroids - cause demarginalization and inhibit neutrophil apoptosis

23

Definition of Neutropenia

Decrease in neutrophils; less than 2.3 x 10^9

24

Neutropenia mechanisms (3)

1. Decreased BM production
2. Shift from CGP to MGP
3. Increase in rate of outflow of neuts from blood

25

Neutropenia severity
- Severe with increased risk of infection
- Increased risk of auto-infection
- Very serious risk, reverse isolation and/or prophylactic antibiotics

- less than 1.5 x 10^9/L
- less than 1.0 x 10^9/L
- less than 0.5 x 10^9/L

26

Eosinophilia Definition

Increase in Eosinophils above 0.6 x 10^9/L

27

Eosinophilia may be caused by: (5)

1. Allergic responses
2. Skin Disorders
3. Parasitic infections, especially helminths (worms)
4. Infectious disease
5. Hematologic disorders

28

Definition of Eosinopenia

A decrease in eosinophils is usually not significant and is difficult to measure

29

Eosinopenia is caused by: (3)

1. Stress
2. Bacterial and viral infections
3. Steroids

30

Definition of Basophilia

Increase in basophils above 0.2 x10^9/L